# Past Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar

Honey poured from a sufficient height onto toast undergoes the well-known `liquid rope coiling’ instability.

We have studied this instability using a combination of laboratory experiments, theory, and numerics, with the aim of determining phase diagrams and scaling laws for the different coiling modes. Finite-amplitude coiling has four distinct modes - viscous, gravitational, inertio-gravitational, and inertial - depending on how the viscous forces that resist deformation of the rope are balanced. The inertio-gravitational mode is particularly interesting as it involves resonance between the coiling portion of the rope and its long trailing `tail’. Further experiments using less viscous fluids reveal that the rope can exhibit five different morphologies, of which steady coiling is only one. We determine the detailed phase diagram of these morphologies, which includes a novel `liquid supercoiling’

state in which the coiled cylinder formed by the primary coiling instability undergoes in turn its own complex buckling instability. We show that the onset of these different patterns is determined by a non-penetrability condition which takes different forms in the viscous, gravitational and inertial limits. To close, we will briefly evoke two additional related phenomena: spiral waves of bubbles generated by coiling, and the `fluid mechanical sewing machine’ in which the fluid falls onto a moving belt.

While there have been recent advances for analyzing the complex deterministic

behavior of systems with discontinuous dynamics, there are many open questions about

understanding and predicting noise-driven and noise-sensitive phenomena in the

non-smooth context. Stochastic effects can often change the picture dramatically,

particularly if multiple time scales are present. We demonstrate novel approaches

for exploring and explaining surprising phenomena driven by the interplay of

nonlinearities, delays, randomness, in specific applications with piecewise smooth

dynamics - nonlinear models of balance, relay control, and impacting dynamics.

Effective techniques typically depend on the combination of mathematical techniques,

multiple scales techniques, and phenomenological intuition from seemingly unrelated

canonical models of biophysics, mechanics, and chemical dynamics. The appropriate

strategy is not always immediately obvious from the area of application or model

type. This gap may follow from the limited attention that stochastic models with

discontinuous dynamics have received in the past, or it may be the reason for this

limited attention. Combining the geometrical perspective with asymptotic approaches

in physical and phase space appears to be a critical part of developing effective

approaches.

Barbara Mahler: 15+5 min

Thomas Woolley: 15+5 min

Julian A. Garcia Grajales: 15+5 min

Respiratory illnesses, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, account for one in five deaths worldwide and cost the UK over £6 billion a year. The main form of treatment is via inhaled drug delivery. Typically, however, a low fraction of the inhaled dose reaches the target areas in the lung. Predictive numerical capabilities have the potential for significant impact in the optimisation of pulmonary drug delivery. However, accurate and efficient prediction is challenging due to the complexity of the airway geometries and of the flow in the airways. In addition, geometric variation of the airways across subjects has a pronounced effect on the aerosol deposition. Therefore, an accurate model of respiratory deposition remains a challenge.

High-fidelity simulations of the flow field and prediction of the deposition patterns motivate the use of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in order to resolve the flow. Due to the high grid resolution requirements, it is desirable to adopt an efficient computational strategy. We employ a robust immersed boundary method developed for curvilinear coordinates, which allows the use of structured grids to model the complex patient-specific airways, and can accommodate the inter-subject geometric variations on the same grid. The proposed approach reduces the errors at the boundary and retains the stability guarantees of the original flow solver.

A Lagrangian particle tracking scheme is adopted to model the transport of aerosol particles. In order to characterise deposition, we propose the use of an instantaneous Stokes number based on the local properties of the flow field. The effective Stokes number is then defined as the time-average of the instantaneous value. This effective Stokes number thus encapsulates the flow history and geometric variability. Our results demonstrate that the effective Stokes number can deviate significantly from the reference value based solely on a characteristic flow velocity and length scale. In addition, the effective Stokes number shows a clear correlation with deposition efficiency.

Tmoslav Plesa: Chemical Reaction Systems with a Homoclinic Bifurcation: An Inverse Problem, 25+5 min;

John Ockendon: Wave Homogenisation, 10 min + questions;

Hilary Ockendon: Sloshing, 10 min + questions

We study the motion of a eukaryotic cell on a substrate and investigate the dependence of this motion on key physical parameters such as strength of protrusion by actin filaments and adhesion. This motion is modeled by a system of two PDEs consisting of the Allen-Cahn equation for the scalar phase field function coupled with a vectorial parabolic equation for the orientation of the actin filament network. The two key properties of this system are (i) presence of gradients in the coupling terms and (ii) mass (volume) preservation constraints. We pass to the sharp interface limit to derive the equation of the motion of the cell boundary, which is mean curvature motion perturbed by a novel nonlinear term. We establish the existence of two distinct regimes of the physical parameters. In the subcritical regime, the well-posedness of the problem is proved (M. Mizuhara et al., 2015). Our main focus is the supercritical regime where we established surprising features of the motion of the interface such as discontinuities of velocities and hysteresis in the 1D model, and instability of the circular shape and rise of asymmetry in the 2D model. Because of properties (i)-(ii), classical comparison principle techniques do not apply to this system. Furthermore, the system can not be written in a form of gradient flow, which is why Γ-convergence techniques also can not be used. This is joint work with V. Rybalko and M. Potomkin.

Much of the recent interest in complex networks has been driven by the prospect that network optimization will help us understand the workings of evolutionary pressure in natural systems and the design of efficient engineered systems. In this talk, I will reflect on unanticipated attributes and artifacts in three classes of network optimization problems. First, I will discuss implications of optimization for the metabolic activity of living cells and its role in giving rise to the recently discovered phenomenon of synthetic rescues. Then I will comment on the problem of controlling network dynamics and show that theoretical results on optimizing the number of driver nodes/variables often only offer a conservative lower bound to the number actually needed in practice. Finally, I will discuss the sensitive dependence of network dynamics on network structure that emerges in the optimization of network topology for dynamical processes governed by eigenvalue spectra, such as synchronization and consensus processes. Optimization is a double-edged sword for which desired and adverse effects can be exacerbated in complex network systems due to the high dimensionality of their dynamics.

**New singularities for Stokes waves**