Past Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops

31 May 2013
10:00
to
11:15
Abstract

In order to reduce cost, the MOD are attempting to reduce the number of array types fitted to their assets. There is also a requirement for the arrays to increase their frequency coverage. A wide bandwidth capability is thus needed from a single array. The need for high sensitivity and comparatively high frequencies of operation has led to the view that 1 3 composites are suitable hydrophones for this purpose. These hydrophones are used widely in ultra-sonics, but are not generally used down to the frequency of the new arrays.

Experimental work using a single hydrophone (small in terms of wavelengths) has shown that the sensitivity drops significantly as the frequency approaches the bottom of the required band, and then recovers as the frequency reduces further. Complex computer modelling appears to suggest the loss in sensitivity is due to a "lateral mode" where the hydrophone "breathes" in and out. In order to engineer a solution, the mechanics of the cause of this problem and the associated parameters of the materials need to be identified (e.g. is changing the 1 3 filler material the best option?). In order to achieve this understanding, a mathematical model of the 1 3 composite hydrophone (ceramic pegs and filler) is required that can be used to explain why the hydrophone changes from the simple compression and expansion in the direction of travel of the wave front to a lateral "breathing" mode.

More details available from gower@maths.ox.ac.uk

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
24 May 2013
10:00
to
11:15
Richard Todd
Abstract
“Flash sintering” is a process reported by R Raj and co-workers in which very rapid densification of a ceramic powder compact is achieved by the passage of an electrical current through the specimen. Full density can be achieved in a few seconds (sintering normally takes several hours) and at furnace temperatures several hundred Kelvin below the temperatures required with conventional sintering. The name of the process comes from a runaway power spike that is observed at the point of sintering. Although it is acknowledged by Raj that Joule heating plays a role in the process, he and his co-authors claim that this is of minor importance and that entirely new physical effects must also be involved. However, the existence and possible relevance of these other effects of the electric field/current remains controversial. The aim of this workshop is to introduce the subject and to stimulate discussion of how mathematics could shed light on some the factors that are difficult to measure and understand experimentally.
  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
26 April 2013
10:00
to
11:15
Charles Offer
Abstract

Please note the change of venue!

Suppose there is a system where certain objects move through a network. The objects are detected only when they pass through a sparse set of points in the network. For example, the objects could be vehicles moving along a road network, and observed by a radar or other sensor as they pass through (or originate or terminate at) certain key points in the network, but which cannot be observed continuously and tracked as they travel from one point to another. Alternatively they could be data packets in a computer network. The detections only record the time at which an object passes by, and contain no information about identity that would trivially allow the movement of an individual object from one point to another to be deduced. It is desired to determine the statistics of the movement of the objects through the network. I.e. if an object passes through point A at a certain time it is desired to determine the probability density that the same object will pass through a point B at a certain later time.

The system might perhaps be represented by a graph, with a node at each point where detections are made. The detections at each node can be represented by a signal as a function of time, where the signal is a superposition of delta functions (one per detection). The statistics of the movement of objects between nodes must be deduced from the correlations between the signals at each node. The problem is complicated by the possibility that a given object might move between two nodes along several alternative routes (perhaps via other nodes or perhaps not), or might travel along the same route but with several alternative speeds.

What prior knowledge about the network, or constraints on the signals, are needed to make this problem solvable? Is it necessary to know the connections between the nodes or the pdfs for the transition time between nodes a priori, or can this be deduced? What conditions are needed on the information content of the signals? (I.e. if detections are very sparse on the time scale for passage through the network then the transition probabilities can be built up by considering each cascade of detections independently, while if detections are dense then it will presumably be necessary to assume that objects do not move through the network independently, but instead tend to form convoys that are apparent as a pattern of detections that persist for some distance on average). What limits are there on the noise in the signal or amount of unwanted signal, i.e. false detections, or objects which randomly fail to be detected at a particular node, or objects which are detected at one node but which do not pass through any other nodes? Is any special action needed to enforce causality, i.e. positive time delays for transitions between nodes?

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
8 March 2013
09:45
to
11:00
Nick Hall-Taylor
Abstract
In vertical annular two-phase flow, large amplitude waves ("disturbance waves") are the most significant means by which the liquid is transported by the action of the gas phase. The presentation is of certain experimental results with the intention of defining a conceptual model suitable for possible mathematical interpretation. These large waves have been studied for over 50 years but there has been little corresponding advance in the mathematical understanding of the phenomenon. The aim of the workshop is to discuss what analysis might be possible and how this might contribute to the understanding of the phenomena involved.
  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
22 February 2013
10:00
to
11:37
Abstract

We wish to discuss the role of Modelling in Health Care. While risk factor prevalences vary and change with time it is difficult to anticipate the change in disease incidence that will result without accurately modelling the epidemiology. When detailed study of the prevalence of obesity, tobacco and salt intake, for example, are studied clear patterns emerge that can be extrapolated into the future. These can give rise to estimated probability distributions of these risk factors across age, sex, ethnicity, social class groups etc into the future. Micro simulation of individuals from defined populations (eg England 2012) can then estimate disease incidence, prevalence, death, costs and quality of life. Thus future health and other needs can be estimated, and interventions on these risk factors can be simulated for their population effect. Health policy can be better determined by a realistic characterisation of public health. The Foresight microsimulation modelling of the National Heart Forum (UK Health Forum) will be described. We will emphasise some of the mathematical and statistical issues associated with so doing.

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
15 February 2013
10:00
to
11:15
Abstract

InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) is an important space geodetic technique (i.e. a technique that uses satellite data to obtain measurements of the Earth) of great interest to geophysicists monitoring slip along fault lines and other changes to shape of the Earth. InSAR works by using the difference in radar phase returns acquired at two different times to measure displacements of the Earth’s surface. Unfortunately, atmospheric noise and other problems mean that it can be difficult to use the InSAR data to obtain clear measurements of displacement.

Persistent Scatterer (PS) InSAR is a later adaptation of InSAR that uses statistical techniques to identify pixels within an InSAR image that are dominated by a single back scatterer, producing high amplitude and stable phase returns (Feretti et al. 2001, Hooper et al. 2004). PS InSAR has the advantage that it (hopefully) chooses the ‘better’ datapoints, but it has the disadvantage that it throws away a lot of the data that might have been available in the original InSAR signal.

InSAR and PS InSAR have typically been used in isolation to obtain slip-rates across faults, to understand the roles that faults play in regional tectonics, and to test models of continental deformation. But could they perhaps be combined? Or could PS InSAR be refined so that it doesn’t throw away as much of the original data? Or, perhaps, could the criteria used to determine what data are signal and what are noise be improved?

The key aim of this workshop is to describe and discuss the techniques and challenges associated with InSAR and PS InSAR (particularly the problem of atmospheric noise), and to look at possible methods for improvement, by combining InSAR and PS InSAR or by methods for making the choice of thresholds.

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops

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