# Past Junior Geometry and Topology Seminar

Abstract: Four manifolds are some of the most intriguing objects in topology. So far, they have eluded any attempt of classification and their behaviour is very different from what one encounters in other dimensions. On the other hand, Einstein metrics are among the canonical types of metrics one can find on a manifold. In this talk I will discuss many of the peculiarities that make dimension four so special and see how Einstein metrics could potentially help us understand more about four manifolds.

I plan to discuss finite time singularities for the harmonic map heat flow and describe a beautiful example of winding behaviour due to Peter Topping.

A result of Jeffrey Brock states that, given a hyperbolic 3-manifold which is a mapping torus over a surface $S$, its volume can be expressed in terms of the distance induced by the monodromy map in the pants graph of $S$. This is an abstract graph whose vertices are pants decompositions of $S$, and edges correspond to some 'elementary alterations' of those.

I will show how this theorem gives an estimate for the volume of hyperbolic complements of closed braids in the solid torus, in terms of braid properties. The core piece of such estimate is a generalization of a result of Masur, Mosher and Schleimer that train track splitting sequences (which I will define in the talk) induce quasi-geodesics in the marking graph.

In this talk we're going to discuss Hamilton's maximum principle for the Ricci flow. As an application, I would like to explain a technique due to Boehm and Wilking which provides a general tool to obtain new Ricci flow invariant curvature conditions from given ones. As we'll see, it plays a key role in Brendle and Schoen's proof of the differentiable sphere theorem.

The Ising model is a well-known statistical physics model, defined on a two-dimensional lattice. It is interesting because it exhibits a "phase transition" at a certain critical temperature. Recent mathematical research has revealed an intriguing geometry in the model, involving discrete holomorphic functions, spinors, spin structures, and the Dirac equation. I will try to outline some of these ideas.

Quiver varieties and their quantizations feature prominently in

geometric representation theory. Multiplicative quiver varieties are

group-like versions of ordinary quiver varieties whose quantizations

involve quantum groups and $q$-difference operators. In this talk, we will

define and give examples of representations of quivers, ordinary quiver

varieties, and multiplicative quiver varieties. No previous knowledge of

quivers will be assumed. If time permits, we will describe some phenomena

that occur when quantizing multiplicative quiver varieties at a root of

unity, and work-in-progress with Nicholas Cooney.

I will explain the basics of deformation quantization of Poisson

algebras (an important tool in mathematical physics). Roughly, it is a

family of associative algebras deforming the original commutative

algebra. Following Fedosov, I will describe a classification of

quantizations of (algebraic) symplectic manifolds.

In this talk I shall discuss some classical results on isometric embedding of positively/nonegatively curved surfaces into $\mathbb{R}^3$.

The isometric embedding problem has played a crucial role in the development of geometric analysis and nonlinear PDE techniques--Nash invented his Nash-Moser techniques to prove the embeddability of general manifolds; later Gromov recast the problem into his ``h-Principle", which recently led to a major breakthrough by C. De Lellis et al. in the analysis of Euler/Navier-Stokes. Moreover, Nirenberg settled (positively) the Weyl Problem: given a smooth metric with strictly positive Gaussian curvature on a closed surface, does there exist a global isometric embedding into the Euclidean space $\mathbb{R}^3$? This work is proved by the continuity method and based on the regularity theory of the Monge-Ampere Equation, which led to Cheng-Yau's renowned works on the Minkowski Problem and the Calabi Conjecture.

Today we shall summarise Nirenberg's original proof for the Weyl problem. Also, we shall describe Hamilton's simplified proof using Nash-Moser Inverse Function Theorem, and Guan-Li's generalisation to the case of nonnegative Gaussian curvature. We shall also mention the status-quo of the related problems.