For a smooth variety over a number field, one defines various different homology groups (Betti, de Rham, etale, log-crystalline), which carry various kinds of enriching structure and are thought of as a system of realisations for a putative underlying (mixed) motivic homology group. Following Deligne, one can study fundamental groups in the same way, and the study of specific realisations of the motivic fundamental group has already found Diophantine applications, for instance in the anabelian proof of Siegel's theorem by Kim.

It is hoped that study of fundamental groups should give one access to ``higher'' arithmetic information not visible in the first cohomology, for instance classical and p-adic heights. In this talk, we will discuss recent work making this hope concrete, by demonstrating how local components of canonical heights on abelian varieties admit a natural description in terms of fundamental groups.

# Past Number Theory Seminar

Kim's iterative non-abelian reciprocity laws carve out a sequence of subsets of the adelic points of a suitable algebraic variety, containing the global points. Like Ellenberg's obstructions to the existence of global points, they are based on nilpotent approximations to the variety. Systematically exploiting this idea gives a sequence starting with the Brauer-Manin obstruction, based on the theory of obstruction towers in algebraic topology. For Shimura varieties, nilpotent approximations are inadequate as the fundamental group is nearly perfect, but relative completions produce an interesting obstruction tower. For modular curves, these maps take values in Galois cohomology of modular forms, and give obstructions to an adelic elliptic curve with global Tate module underlying a global elliptic curve.

It is a standard heuristic that sums of oscillating number theoretic functions, like the M\"obius function or Dirichlet characters, should exhibit squareroot cancellation. It is often very difficult to prove anything as strong as that, and we generally expect that if we could prove squareroot cancellation it would be the best possible bound. I will discuss recent results showing that, in fact, certain averages of multiplicative functions exhibit a bit more than squareroot cancellation.

Given a representation of Gal_{Q_p} with coefficients in a p-adically complete local ring R, Fukaya and Kato have conjectured the existence of a canonical trivialization of the determinant of a certain cohomology complex. When R=Z_p and the representation is a lattice in a de Rham representation, this trivialization should be related to the \varepsilon-factor of the corresponding Weil--Deligne representation. Such a trivialization has been constructed for certain crystalline Galois representations, by the work of a number of authors. I will explain how to extend these trivializations to certain families of crystalline Galois representations. This is joint work with Otmar Venjakob.

Dynatomic curves parametrize n-periodic orbits of a one-parameter family of polynomial dynamical systems. These curves lack the structure of their arithmetic-geometric analogues (modular curves of level n) but can be studied dynamically. Morton and Silverman conjectured a dynamical analogue of the uniform boundedness conjecture (theorems of Mazur, Merel), asserting uniform bounds for the number of rational periodic points for such a family. I will discuss recent work towards the function field version of their conjecture, including results on the reduction mod p of dynatomic curves for the quadratic polynomial family z^2+c.

In 2016, Habegger and Pila published a proof of the Zilber-Pink conjecture for curves in abelian varieties (all defined over $\mathbb{Q}^{\rm alg}$). Their article also contained a proof of the same conjecture for a product of modular curves that was conditional on a strong arithmetic hypothesis. Both proofs were extensions of the Pila-Zannier strategy based in o-minimality that has yielded many results in this area. In this talk, we will explain our generalisation of the strategy to the Zilber-Pink conjecture for any Shimura variety. This is joint work with J. Ren.

The aim of this talk is to explain how to axiomatize Hilbert's Theorem 90, in the setting of (the cohomology with finite coefficients of) profinite groups. I shall first explain the general framework. It includes, in particular, the use of divided power modules over Witt vectors; a process which appears to be of independent interest in the theory of modular representations. I shall then give several applications to Galois cohomology, notably to the problem of lifting mod p Galois representations (or more accurately: torsors under these) modulo higher powers of p. I'll also explain the connection with the Bloch-Kato conjecture in Galois cohomology, proved by Rost, Suslin and Voevodsky. This is joint work in progress with Charles De Clercq.

This concerns recent work with P. Corvaja in which we relate the Hilbert Property for an algebraic variety (a kind of axiom linked with Hilbert Irreducibility, relevant e.g. for the Inverse Galois Problem) with the fundamental group of the variety.

In particular, this leads to new examples (of surfaces) of failure of the Hilbert Property. We also prove the Hilbert Property for a non-rational surface (whereas all previous examples involved rational varieties).

In this talk, I will give a brief overview of the Langlands program and Langlands functoriality with reference to the examples of Galois representations attached to cusp forms and the Jacquet-Langlands correspondence for $\mathrm{GL}_2$. I will then explain how one can generalise this idea, sketching a proof of a Jacquet-Langlands type correspondence from $\mathrm{U}_n(B)$, where $B$ is a quaternion algebra, to $\mathrm{Sp}_{2n}$ and showing that one can attach Galois representations to regular algebraic cuspidal automorphic representations of $\mathrm{Sp}_{2n}$.

I will discuss the definitions and the basic properties of some infinite dimensional generalizations of Euclidean lattices and of their invariants defined in terms of theta series. Then I will present some of their applications to transcendence theory and Diophantine geometry.