Pick's theorem is a century-old theorem in complex analysis about interpolation with bounded analytic functions. The Kadison-Singer problem was a question about states on $C^*$-algebras originating in the work of Dirac on the mathematical description of quantum mechanics. It was solved by Marcus, Spielman and Srivastava a few years ago.

I will talk about Pick's theorem, the Kadison-Singer problem and how the two can be brought together to solve interpolation problems with infinitely many nodes. This talk is based on joint work with Alexandru Aleman, John McCarthy and Stefan Richter.

# Past Forthcoming Seminars

The rows of a Young diagram chosen at random with respect to the Plancherel measure are known to share some features with the eigenvalues of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. We shall discuss several ideas, going back to the work of Kerov and developed by Biane and by Okounkov, which to some extent clarify this similarity. Partially based on joint work with Jeong and on joint works in progress with Feldheim and Jeong and with Täufer.

Since Weierstrass it has been known that there are functions that are continuous but nowhere differentiable. A beautiful example (with probability 1) is any Brownian path. Brownian paths can be constructed either in space, via Brownian bridge, or in Fourier space, via random Fourier series.

What about functions, which we call "smoothies", that are $C^\infty$ but nowhere analytic? This case is less familiar but analogous, and again one can do the construction either in space or Fourier space. We present the ideas and illustrate them with the new Chebfun $\tt{smoothie}$ command. In the complex plane, the same idea gives functions analytic in the open unit disk and $C^\infty$ on the unit circle, which is a natural boundary.

Mittag-Leffler condition ensures the exactness of the inverse limit of short exact sequences indexed on a partially ordered set admitting a countable cofinal subset. We extend Mittag-Leffler condition by relatively relaxing the countability assumption. As an application we prove an exactness result about the completion functor in the category of ultrametric locally convex vector spaces, and in particular we prove that a strict morphism between these spaces has closed image if its kernel is Fréchet.

Reconstruction of 3D images from a set of 2D X-ray projections is a standard inverse problem, particularly in medical imaging. Improvements in imaging technologies have enabled the development of a flat-panel X-ray source, comprised of an array of low-power emitters that are fired in quick succession. During a complete firing sequence, there may be shifts in the patient’s resting position which ultimately create artifacts in the final reconstruction. We present a method for correcting images with respect to unknown body motion, focusing on the case of simple rigid body motion. Image reconstructions are obtained by solving a sparse linear inverse problem, with respect to not only the underlying body but also the unknown velocity. Results find that reconstructions of a moving body can be much better than those obtained by measuring a stationary body, as long as the underlying motion is well approximated.

Given a tournament with $d{n \choose 3}$ cycles of length three, how many cycles of length four must there be? Linial and Morgenstern (2016) conjectured that the minimum is asymptotically attained by "blowing up" a transitive tournament and orienting the edges randomly within the parts. This is reminiscent of the tight examples for the famous Triangle and Clique Density Theorems of Razborov, Nikiforov and Reiher. We prove the conjecture for $d \geq \frac{1}{36}$ using spectral methods. We also show that the family of tight examples is more complex than expected and fully characterise it for $d \geq \frac{1}{16}$. Joint work with Timothy Chan, Andrzej Grzesik and Daniel Král'.

In this talk we will discuss a problem that was worked on during MISGSA 2020, a Study Group held in January at The University of Zululand, South Africa.

We look at a communication network with two types of users - Primary users (PU) and Secondary users (SU) - such that we reduce the network to a set of overlapping sub-graphs consisting of SUs indexed by a specific PU. Within any given sub-graph, the PU may be communicating at a certain fixed frequency F. The respective SUs also wish to communicate at the same frequency F, but not at the expense of interfering with the PU signal. Therefore if the PU is active then the SUs will not communicate.

In an attempt to increase information throughput in the network, we instead allow the SUs to communicate at a different frequency G, which may or may not interfere with a different sub-graph PU in the network, leading to a multi-objective optimisation problem.

We will discuss not only the problem formulation and possible approaches for solving it, but also the pitfalls that can be easily fallen into during study groups.

The notion of emergence is at the core of many of the most challenging open scientific questions, being so much a cause of wonder as a perennial source of philosophical headaches. Two classes of emergent phenomena are usually distinguished: strong emergence, which corresponds to supervenient properties with irreducible causal power; and weak emergence, which are properties generated by the lower levels in such "complicated" ways that they can only be derived by exhaustive simulation. While weak emergence is generally accepted, a large portion of the scientific community considers causal emergence to be either impossible, logically inconsistent, or scientifically irrelevant.

In this talk we present a novel, quantitative framework that assesses emergence by studying the high-order interactions of the system's dynamics. By leveraging the Integrated Information Decomposition (ΦID) framework [1], our approach distinguishes two types of emergent phenomena: downward causation, where macroscopic variables determine the future of microscopic degrees of freedom; and causal decoupling, where macroscopic variables influence other macroscopic variables without affecting their corresponding microscopic constituents. Our framework also provides practical tools that are applicable on a range of scenarios of practical interest, enabling to test -- and possibly reject -- hypotheses about emergence in a data-driven fashion. We illustrate our findings by discussing minimal examples of emergent behaviour, and present a few case studies of systems with emergent dynamics, including Conway’s Game of Life, neural population coding, and flocking models.

[1] Mediano, Pedro AM, Fernando Rosas, Robin L. Carhart-Harris, Anil K. Seth, and Adam B. Barrett. "Beyond integrated information: A taxonomy of information dynamics phenomena." arXiv preprint arXiv:1909.02297 (2019).

The asymptotically locally Euclidean Ricci-flat self-dual 4-manifolds were classified and constructed by Kronheimer as hyperkahler quotients. Each belongs to a finite-dimensional family and a particularly interesting subfamily consists of manifolds with a circle action which can be identified with the minimal resolution of a quotient singularity C^2/G where G is a finite subgroup of SU(2). The resolved singularity is a configuration of rational curves and there is a distinguished one which is pointwise fixed by the circle action. The talk will give an explicit description of the induced metric on this central sphere, and involves twistor theory and the geometry of the lines on a cubic surface.

The classical Minkowski problem consists in finding a convex polyhedron from data consisting of normals to their faces and their surface areas. In the smooth case, the corresponding problem for convex bodies is to find the convex body given the Gauss curvature of its boundary, as a function of the unit normal. The proof consists of three parts: existence, uniqueness and regularity.

In this talk, we study a Minkowski problem for certain measure, called p-capacitary surface area measure, associated to a compact convex set $E$ with nonempty interior and its $p-$harmonic capacitary function (solution to the p-Laplace equation in the complement of $E$). If $\mu_p$ denotes this measure, then the Minkowski problem we consider in this setting is that; for a given finite Borel positive measure $\mu$ on $\mathbb{S}^{n-1}$, find necessary and sufficient conditions for which there exists a convex body $E$ with $\mu_p =\mu$. We will discuss the existence, uniqueness, and regularity of this problem which have deep connections with the Brunn-Minkowski inequality for p-capacity and Monge-Amp{\`e}re equation.