90% of the world’s data have been generated in the last five years. A small fraction of these data is collected with the aim of validating specific hypotheses. These studies are led by the development of mechanistic models focussed on the causality of input-output relationships. However, the vast majority of the data are aimed at supporting statistical or correlation studies that bypass the need for causality and focus exclusively on prediction.
$K$-theory is a relatively new mathematical term. Its origins in the late 1950s go back to Alexander Grothendieck. He used the letter 'K' for 'Klasse', which means 'class' in German, his mother tongue, as the letter 'C' was already used elsewhere, for example for function spaces. Grothendieck worked in algebraic geometry, an area in which ideas from algebra and geometry combine to lead to deeper understanding of both. Today there are really several $K$-the