The Euler equation describing motion of ideal fluids goes back to 1755.

The analysis of the equation is challenging since it is nonlinear and nonlocal. Its solutions are often unstable and spontaneously generate small scales. The fundamental question of global regularity vs finite time singularity formation

remains open for the Euler equation in three spatial dimensions. In this lecture, I will review the history of this question and its connection with the arguably greatest unsolved problem of classical physics, turbulence. Recent results on small scale and singularity formation in two dimensions and for a number of related models will also be presented.

# Past Brooke Benjamin Lecture

To fly is not to fall. How does an insect fly, why does it fly so well, and how can we infer its ‘thoughts’ from its flight dynamics? We have been seeking mechanistic explanations of the complex movement of insect flight. Starting from the Navier-Stokes equations governing the unsteady aerodynamics of flapping flight, a theoretical framework for computing flight leads to new interpretations and predictions of the functions of an insect’s internal machinery that orchestrate its flight. The talk will discuss recent computational and experimental studies of the balancing act of dragonflies and fruit flies: how a dragonfly recovers from falling upside-down and how a fly balances in air. In each case, the physics of flight informs us about the neural feedback circuitries underlying their fast reflexes.

Dynamics of small particles in fluids have fascinated scientists for centuries. Phenomena such as Brownian motion, sedimentation, and electrophoresis continue to inspire cutting-edge research and innovations. The fluid in which the particles move is typically isotropic, such as water or a polymer solution. Recently, we started to explore what would happen if particles are placed in an anisotropic fluid: a liquid crystal. The study reveals that the liquid crystal changes dramatically both the statics and dynamics, leading to levitation of the particles, their anomalous Brownian motion and new mechanisms of electrokinetics. The new phenomena are rooted in anisotropy of the liquid crystal properties, such as different electric conductivity in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the average molecular orientation.

Wave-particle duality is a quantum behaviour usually assumed to have no possible counterpart in classical physics. We revisited this question when we found that a droplet bouncing on a vibrated bath could become self-propelled by its coupling to the surface waves it excites. A dynamical wave-particle association is thus formed.Through several experiments we addressed the same general question. How can a localized and discrete droplet have a common dynamics with a continuous and spatially extended wave? Surprisingly several quantum-like behaviors emerge; a form of uncertainty and a form of quantization are observed. I will show that both properties are related to the "path memory" contained in the wave field. The relation of this experiment with the pilot-wave models proposed by de Broglie and by Bohm for quantum mechanics will be discussed.

The self-consistent analytic theory of the wind-driven sea can be developed due to the presence of small parameter, ratio of atmospheric and water densities. Because of low value of this parameter the sea is "weakly nonlinear" and the average steepness of sea surface is also relatively small. Nevertheless, the weakly nonlinear four-wave resonant interaction is the dominating process in the energy balance. The wind-driven sea can be described statistically in terms of the Hasselmann kinetic equation.

This equation has a rich family of Kolmogorov-type solutions perfectly describing "rear faces" of wave spectra right behind the spectral peak.

More short waves are described by steeper Phillips spectrum formed by ensemble of microbreakings. From the practical view-point the most important question is the spatial and temporal evolution of spectral peaks governed by self-similar solutions of the Hasselmann equation. This analytic theory is supported by numerous experimental data and computer

simulations.