When approximating PDEs with the finite element method, large sparse linear systems must be solved. The ideal preconditioner yields convergence that is algorithmically optimal and parameter robust, i.e. the number of Krylov iterations required to solve the linear system to a given accuracy does not grow substantially as the mesh or problem parameters are changed.

Achieving this for the stationary Navier-Stokes has proven challenging: LU factorisation is Reynolds-robust but scales poorly with degree of freedom count, while Schur complement approximations such as PCD and LSC degrade as the Reynolds number is increased.

Building on the work of Schöberl, Olshanskii and Benzi, in this talk we present the first preconditioner for the Newton linearisation of the stationary Navier--Stokes equations in three dimensions that achieves both optimal complexity and Reynolds-robustness. The scheme combines a novel tailored finite element discretisation, discrete augmented Lagrangian stabilisation, a custom prolongation operator involving local solves on coarse cells, and an additive patchwise relaxation on each

level. We present 3D simulations with over one billion degrees of freedom with robust performance from Reynolds number 10 to 5000.