An important and relevant topic at Thales is 1-3 composite modelling capability. In particular, sensitivity enhancement through design.
A simplistic model developed by Smith and Auld1 has grouped the polycrystalline active and filler materials into an effective homogenous medium by using the rule of weighted averages in order to generate “effective” elastic, electric and piezoelectric properties. This method had been further improved by Avellaneda & Swart2. However, these models fail to provide all of the terms necessary to populate a full elasto-electric matrix – such that the remaining terms need to be estimated by some heuristic approach. The derivation of an approach which allowed all of the terms in the elasto-electric matrix to be calculated would allow much more thorough and powerful predictions – for example allowing lateral modes etc. to be traced and allow a more detailed design of a closely-packed array of 1-3 sensors to be conducted with much higher confidence, accounting for inter-elements coupling which partly governs the key field-of-view of the overall array. In addition, the ability to populate the matrix for single crystal material – which features more independent terms in the elasto-electric matrix than conventional polycrystalline material- would complement the increasing interest in single crystals for practical SONAR devices.
1.“Modelling 1-3 Composite Piezoelectrics: Hydrostatic Response” – IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control 40(1):41-
2.“Calculating the performance of 1-3 piezoelectric composites for hydrophone applications: An effective medium approach” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 103, 1449, 1998
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