Respiratory illnesses, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, account for one in five deaths worldwide and cost the UK over £6 billion a year. The main form of treatment is via inhaled drug delivery. Typically, however, a low fraction of the inhaled dose reaches the target areas in the lung. Predictive numerical capabilities have the potential for significant impact in the optimisation of pulmonary drug delivery. However, accurate and efficient prediction is challenging due to the complexity of the airway geometries and of the flow in the airways. In addition, geometric variation of the airways across subjects has a pronounced effect on the aerosol deposition. Therefore, an accurate model of respiratory deposition remains a challenge.
High-fidelity simulations of the flow field and prediction of the deposition patterns motivate the use of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in order to resolve the flow. Due to the high grid resolution requirements, it is desirable to adopt an efficient computational strategy. We employ a robust immersed boundary method developed for curvilinear coordinates, which allows the use of structured grids to model the complex patient-specific airways, and can accommodate the inter-subject geometric variations on the same grid. The proposed approach reduces the errors at the boundary and retains the stability guarantees of the original flow solver.
A Lagrangian particle tracking scheme is adopted to model the transport of aerosol particles. In order to characterise deposition, we propose the use of an instantaneous Stokes number based on the local properties of the flow field. The effective Stokes number is then defined as the time-average of the instantaneous value. This effective Stokes number thus encapsulates the flow history and geometric variability. Our results demonstrate that the effective Stokes number can deviate significantly from the reference value based solely on a characteristic flow velocity and length scale. In addition, the effective Stokes number shows a clear correlation with deposition efficiency.
- Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar