The Fluid Mechanics of Low-Head Hydropower Illuminated by Particle Image Velocimetry
We study a new type of hydropower which is cost-effective in rivers and tides where there are small pressure drops. The concept goes as follows: The cost of water turbines scales with the flow rate they deal with. Therefore, in order to render this hydropower desirable, we make use of the Venturi principle, a natural fluid mechanical gear system which involves splitting the flow into two streams. The turbine deals with a small fraction of the flow at slow speed and high pressure, whilst the majority avoids the turbine, going at high speed and low pressure. Now the turbine feels an amplified pressure drop, thus maintaining its power output, whilst becoming much cheaper. But it turns out that the efficiency of the whole system depends strongly on the way in which these streams mix back together again.
Here we discuss some new experimental results and compare them to a simplified mathematical model for the mixing of these streams. The experimental results were achieved using particle image velocimetry (PIV), which is a type of flow visualisation. Using a laser sheet and a high speed camera, we are able to capture flow velocity fields at high resolution. Pressure measurements were also taken. The mathematical model is derived from the Navier Stokes equations using boundary layer theory alongside a flow-averaging method and reduces the problem to solving a set of ODE’s for the bulk components of the flow.
Asymptotic Analysis of a Multiphase Drying Model Motivated by Coffee Bean Roasting
Recent modelling of coffee bean roasting suggests that in the early stages of roasting, within each coffee bean, there are two emergent regions: a dried outer region and a saturated interior region. The two regions are separated by a transition layer (or drying front). In this talk, we consider the asymptotic analysis of a multiphase model of this roasting process which was recently put forth and studied numerically, in order to gain a better understanding of its salient features. The model consists of a PDE system governing the thermal, moisture, and gas pressure profiles throughout the interior of the bean. Obtaining asymptotic expansions for these quantities in relevant limits of the physical parameters, we are able to determine the qualitative behaviour of the outer and interior regions, as well as the dynamics of the drying front. Although a number of simplifications and scaling are used, we take care not to discard aspects of the model which are fundamental to the roasting process. Indeed, we find that for all of the asymptotic limits considered, our approximate solutions faithfully reproduce the qualitative features evident from numerical simulations of the full model. From these asymptotic results we have a better qualitative understanding of the drying front (which is hard to resolve precisely in numerical simulations), and hence of the various mechanisms at play as heating, evaporation, and pressure changes result in a roasted bean. This qualitative understanding of solutions to the multiphase model is essential if one is to create more involved models that incorporate chemical reactions and solid mechanics effects.
- Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar