## Further Information:

Part of the Oxford Discrete Maths and Probability Seminar, held via Zoom. Please see the seminar website for details.

We study the following question at the intersection of extremal and structural graph theory. Given a fixed graph $H$ that embeds in a fixed surface $\Sigma$, what is the maximum number of copies of $H$ in an $n$-vertex graph that embeds in $\Sigma$? Exact answers to this question are known for specific graphs $H$ when $\Sigma$ is the sphere. We aim for more general, albeit less precise, results. We show that the answer to the above question is $\Theta(nf(H))$, where $f(H)$ is a graph invariant called the `flap-number' of $H$, which is independent of $\Sigma$. This simultaneously answers two open problems posed by Eppstein (1993). When $H$ is a complete graph we give more precise answers. This is joint work with Tony Huynh and Gwenaël Joret [https://arxiv.org/abs/2003.13777]