Past OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event

23 January 2013
10:15
Abstract

The contact angle of a liquid droplet on a surface can be controlled by making the droplet part of a capacitive structure where the droplet contact area forms one electrode to create an electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) configuration [1]. EWOD introduces a capacitive energy associated with the charging of the solid-liquid interface, in addition to the surface free energy, to allow the contact angle, and hence effective hydrophilicity of a surface, to be controlled using a voltage. However, the substrate must include an electrode coated with a thin, and typically hydrophobic, solid insulating layer and the liquid must be conducting, typically a salt solution, and have a direct electrical contact. In this seminar I show that reversible voltage programmed control of droplet wetting of a surface can be achieved using non-conducting dielectric liquids and without direct electrical contact. The approach is based on non-uniform electric fields generated via interdigitated electrodes and liquid dielectrophoresis to alter the energy balance of a droplet on a solid surface (Fig. 1a,b). Data is shown for thick droplets demonstrating the change in the cosine of the contact angle is proportional to the square of the applied voltage and it is shown theoretically why this equation, similar to that found for EWOD can be expected [2]. I also show that as the droplet spreads and becomes a film, the dominant change in surface free energy to be expected occurs by a wrinkling/undulation of the liquid-vapor interface (Fig. 1c) [3,4]. This type of wrinkle is shown to be a method to create a voltage programmable phase grating [5]. Finally, I argue that dielectrowetting can be used to modify the dynamic contact angle observed during droplet spreading and that this is described by a modified form of the Hoffman-de Gennes law for the relationship between edge speed and contact angle. In this dynamic situation, three distinct regimes can be predicted theoretically and are observed experimentally. These correspond to an exponential approach to equilibrium, a pure Tanner’s law type power law and a voltage determined superspreading power law behavior [6]. 

Acknowledgements

GM acknowledges the contributions of colleagues Professor Carl Brown, Dr. Mike Newton, Dr. Gary Wells and Mr Naresh Sampara at Nottingham Trent University who were central to the development of this work. EPSRC funding under grant EP/E063489/1 is also gratefully acknowledged.

References

[1]   F. Mugele and J.C. Baret, “Electrowetting: From basics to applications”, J. Phys.: Condens. Matt., 2005, 17, R705-R774.

[2]  G. McHale, C.V. Brown, M.I. Newton, G.G. Wells and N. Sampara, “Dielectrowetting driven spreading of droplets”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2011, 107, art. 186101.

[3]  C.V. Brown, W. Al-Shabib, G.G. Wells, G. McHale and M.I. Newton, “Amplitude scaling of a static wrinkle at an oil-air interface created by dielectrophoresis forces”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 2010,  97, art. 242904.

[4]  C.V. Brown, G. McHale and N.J. Mottram, “Analysis of a static wrinkle on the surface of a thin dielectric liquid layer formed by dielectrophoresis forces”, J. Appl. Phys. 2011, 110 art. 024107.

[5]  C.V. Brown, G. G. Wells, M.I. Newton and G. McHale, “Voltage-programmable liquid optical interface”, Nature Photonics, 2009, 3, 403-405.

[6]  C.V. Brown, G. McHale and N. Sampara, “Voltage induced superspreading of droplets”, submitted (2012)

  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
14 November 2012
10:15
Abstract

One of the main problems occurring in the aorta is the development of aneurysms, in which case the artery wall thickens and its diameter increases. Suffice to say that many other factors may be involved in this process. These include, amongst others, geometry, non-homogeneous material, anisotropy, growth, remodeling, age, etc. In this talk, we examine the bifurcation of inflated thick-walled cylindrical shells under axial loading and its interpretation in terms of the mechanical response of arterial tissue and the formation and propagation of aneurysms. We will show that this mechanical approach is able to capture features of the mechanisms involved during the formation and propagation of aneurysms.

  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
7 November 2012
10:15
Luis Dorfmann
Abstract
<p class="PreformattedText">Recent advances in engineered muscle tissue attached to a synthetic substrate motivates the development of appropriate constitutive and numerical models. Applications of active materials can be expanded by using robust, non-mammalian muscle cells, such as those of <i>Manduca sexta.</i> In this talk we present a&nbsp;&nbsp; continuum model that accounts for the stimulation of muscle fibers by introducing multiple stress-free reference configurations and for the hysteretic response by specifying a pseudo-elastic energy function. A simple example representing uniaxial loading-unloading is used to validate and verify the characteristics of the model. Then, based on experimental data of muscular thin films, a more complex case shows the qualitative potential of <i>Manduca</i> muscle tissue in active biohybrid constructs.</p>
  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
31 October 2012
10:15
Professor Dennis McLaughlin
Abstract

Although the importance of hydrologic uncertainty is widely recognized it is rarely considered in control problems, especially real-time control. One of the reasons is that stochastic control is computationally expensive, especially when control decisions are derived from spatially distributed models. This talk reviews relevant control concepts and describes how reduced order models can make stochastic control feasible for computationally demanding applications. The ideas are illustrated with a classic problem -- hydraulic control of a moving contaminant plume.

  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
12 September 2012
10:15
Abstract

Russian mathematician V.I.Arnold conjectured that convex, homogeneous bodies with less than four equilibria (also called mono-monostatic) may exist. Not only did his conjecture turn out to be true, the newly discovered objects show various interesting features. Our goal is to give an overview of these findings as well as to present some new results. We will point out that mono-monostatic bodies are neither flat, nor thin, they are not similar to typical objects with more equilibria and they are hard to approximate by polyhedra. Despite these "negative" traits, there seems to be strong indication that these forms appear in Nature due to their special mechanical properties.

  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
5 September 2012
10:15
Richard Kollar
Abstract

Telomeres, non-coding terminal structures of DNA strands, consist of repetitive long tandem repeats of a specific length. An absence of an enzyme, telomerase, in certain cellular structures requires an alternative telomerase-independent pathway for telomeric sequence length regulation. Besides linear telomeres other configurations such as telomeric circles and telomeric loops were experimentally observed. They are suspected to play an important role in a universal mechanism for stabilization of the ends of linear DNA that possibly dates back to pre-telomerase ages. We propose a mathematical model that captures biophysical interactions of various telomeric structures on a short time scale and that is able to reproduce experimental measurements in mtDNA of yeast. Moreover, the model opens up a couple of interesting mathematical problems such as validity of a quasi-steady state approximation and dynamic properties of discrete coagulation-fragmentation systems. We also identify and estimate key factors influencing the length distribution of telomeric circles, loops and strand invasions using numerical simulations.

  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event
29 August 2012
10:15
Nick Hale
Abstract
<p>For a given positive measure on a fixed domain, Gaussian quadrature routines can be defined via their property of integrating an arbitrary polynomial of degree $2n+1$ exactly using only $n+1$ quadrature nodes. In the special case of Gauss--Jacobi quadrature, this means that $$\int_{-1}^1 (1+x)^\alpha(1-x)^\beta f(x) dx = \sum_{j=0}^{n} w_j f(x_j), \quad \alpha, \beta &gt; -1, $$ whenever $f(x)$ is a polynomial of degree at most $2n+1$. When $f$ is not a polynomial, but a function analytic in a neighbourhood of $[-1,1]$, the above is not an equality but an approximation that converges exponentially fast as $n$ is increased.</p> <p>An undergraduate mathematician taking a numerical analysis course could tell you that the nodes $x_j$ are roots of the Jacobi polynomial $P^{\alpha,\beta}_{n+1}(x)$, the degree $n+1$ polynomial orthogonal with respect to the given weight, and that the quadrature weight at each node is related to the derivative $P'^{\alpha,\beta}_{n+1}(x_j)$. However, these values are not generally known in closed form, and we must compute them numerically... but how?</p> <p>Traditional approaches involve applying the recurrence relation satisfied by the orthogonal polynomials, or solving the Jacobi matrix eigenvalue problem in the algorithm of Golub and Welsch, but these methods are inherently limited by a minimal complexity of $O(n^2)$. The current state-of-the-art is the $O(n)$ algorithm developed by Glasier, Liu, and Rokhlin, which hops from root to root using a Newton iteration evaluated with a Taylor series defined by the ODE satisfied by $P^{\alpha,\beta}_{n+1}$.</p> <p>We propose an alternative approach, whereby the function and derivative evaluations required in the Newton iteration are computed independently in $O(1)$ operations per point using certain well-known asymptotic expansions. We shall review these expansions, outline the new algorithm, and demonstrate improvements in both accuracy and efficiency.&nbsp; </p>
  • OCCAM Wednesday Morning Event

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