Given a complex vector space $V$, consider the ring $R_{a,b}(V)$ of polynomial functions on the space of configurations of $a$ vectors and $b$ covectors which are invariant under the natural action of $SL(V)$. Rings of this type play a central role in representation theory, and their study dates back to Hilbert. Over the last three decades, different bases of these spaces with remarkable properties were found. To explicitly construct, as well as to compare, some of these bases remains a challenging problem, already open when $V$ is 3-dimensional.

In this talk, I report on recent developments in the 3-dimensional setting of this theory.

# Past Algebra Seminar

We define categorical matrix factorizations in a suspended additive category,

with respect to a central element. Such a factorization is a sequence of maps

which is two-periodic up to suspension, and whose composition equals the

corresponding coordinate map of the central element. When the category in

question is that of free modules over a commutative ring, together with the

identity suspension, then these factorizations are just the classical matrix

factorizations. We show that the homotopy category of categorical matrix

factorizations is triangulated, and discuss some possible future directions.

This is joint work with Dave Jorgensen.

Torsion in homology are invariants that have received increasing attention over the last twenty years, by the work of Lück, Bergeron, Venkatesh and others. While there are various vanishing results, no one has found a finitely presented group where the torsion in the first homology is exponential over a normal chain with trivial intersection. On the other hand, conjecturally, every 3-manifold group should be an example.

A group is right angled if it can be generated by a list of infinite order elements, such that every element commutes with its neighbors. Many lattices in higher rank Lie groups (like SL(n,Z), n>2) are right angled. We prove that for a right angled group, the torsion in the first homology has subexponential growth for any Farber sequence of subgroups, in particular, any chain of normal subgroups with trivial intersection. We also exhibit right angled cocompact lattices in SL(n,R) (n>2), for which the Congruence Subgroup Property is not known. This is joint work with Nik Nikolov and Tsachik Gelander.

We will introduce the Thurston norm in the setting of 3-manifold groups, and show how the techniques coming from L2-homology allow us to extend its definition to the setting of free-by-cyclic groups.

We will also look at the relationship between this Thurston norm and the Alexander norm, and the BNS invariants, in particular focusing on the case of ascending HNN extensions of the 2-generated free group.

In 1878, Jordan showed that there is a function f on the set of natural numbers such that, if $G$ is a finite subgroup of $GL(n,C)$, then $G$ has an abelian normal subgroup of index at most $f(n)$. Early bounds were given by Frobenius and Schur, and close to optimal bounds were given by Weisfeiler in unpublished work in 1984 using the classification of finite simple groups; about ten years ago I obtained the optimal bounds. Crucially, these are "absolute" bounds; they do not address the wider question of divisibility of orders.

In 1887, Minkowski established a bound for the order of a Sylow p-subgroup of a finite subgroup of GL(n,Z). Recently, Serre asked me whether I could obtain Minkowski-like results for complex linear groups, and posed a very specific question. The answer turns out to be no, but his suggestion is actually quite close to the truth, and I shall address this question in my seminar. The answer addresses the divisibility issue in general, and it turns out that a central technical theorem on the structure of linear groups from my earlier work which there was framed as a replacement theorem can be reinterpreted as an embedding theorem and so can be used to preserve divisibility.

The class of multiserial algebras contains many well-studied examples of algebras such as the intensely-studied biserial and special biserial algebras. These, in turn, contain many of the tame algebras arising in the modular representation theory of finite groups such as tame blocks of finite groups and all tame blocks of Hecke algebras. However, unlike biserial algebras which are of tame representation type, multiserial algebras are generally of wild representation type. We will show that despite this fact, we retain some control over their representation theory.

A subgroup Gamma of a semisimple algebraic group G is called strongly dense if every subgroup of Gamma is either cyclic or Zariski-dense. I will describe a method for building strongly dense free subgroups inside a given Zariski-dense subgroup Gamma of G, thus providing a refinement of the Tits alternative. The method works for a large class of G's and Gamma's. I will also discuss connections with word maps and expander graphs. This is joint work with Bob Guralnick and Michael Larsen.

The prime spectrum of a quantum algebra has a finite stratification in terms

of a set of distinguished primes called H-primes, and we can study these

strata by passing to certain nice localizations of the algebra. H-primes

are now starting to show up in some surprising new areas, including

combinatorics (totally nonnegative matrices) and physics, and we can borrow

techniques from these areas to answer questions about quantum algebras and

their localizations. In particular, we can use Grassmann necklaces -- a

purely combinatorial construction -- to study the topological structure of

the prime spectrum of quantum matrices.