Past Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar

22 October 2013
13:00
Stuart Thomson
Abstract
In the first JAM seminar of 2013/2014, I will discuss the topic of singular perturbed hyperbolic systems of PDE arising in physical phenomena, particularly the St Venant equations of shallow water theory. Using a mixture of analytical and numerical techniques, I will demonstrate the dangers of approximating the dynamics of a system by the equations obtained upon taking a singular limit $\epsilon\rightarrow 0$ and furthermore how the dynamics of the system change when the parameter $\epsilon$ is taken to be small but finite. Problems of this type are ubiquitous in the physical sciences, and I intend to motivate another example arising in elastoplasticity, the subject of my DPhil study. \\ \\ Note: This seminar is not intended for faculty members, and is available only to current undergraduate and graduate students.
  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
28 May 2013
13:00
Marta Sarzynska
Abstract
<p>We detect communities on time-dependent correlation networks to study the geographical spread of disease. Using data on country-wide dengue fever, rubella, and H1N1 influenza occurrences spanning several years, we create multilayer similarity networks, with the provinces of a country as nodes and the correlations between the time series of case numbers giving weights to the edges.</p> <p>We perform community detection on these temporal networks of disease outbreaks, looking for groups of provinces in which disease patterns change in similar ways. Optimizing multilayer modularity with a Newman-Girvan null model over a wide parameter range, we observe several partitions that corresponding roughly to relevant historical time points, such as large epidemics and introduction of new disease strains, as well as many strongly spatial partitions.</p> <p>We develop a novel null model for community detection that takes into account spatial information, thereby allows to uncover additional structure that might otherwise be obscured by spatial proximity. The null model is based on a radiation model that was proposed recently for modelling human mobility, and we believe that it might be better at capturing disease spread than existing spatial null models based on gravity models for interaction between nodes.</p> <p>The radiation null model performs better than the Newman-Girvan null model and similarly to the gravity model on benchmark spatial networks with distance-dependent links and a known community structure (both static and multislice networks), and it strongly outperforms both on flux-based benchmarks. When applied to the disease networks, the radiation null model uncovers novel, clear temporal partitions, that might shed light on disease patterns, the introduction of new strains, and provide epidemic warning signals.</p>
  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
27 November 2012
13:15
Stephen O'Keeffe
Abstract

Multi-layered cylinders, or 'multitubes', are ubiquitous throughout the biological world, from microscopic axons to plant stems. Whilst these structures share an underlying common geometry, each one fulfils a different key role in its relevant environment. For example plant stems provide a transport network for nutrients within the organism, whilst the tongue of a chameleon is used for prey capture. This talk will be concerned with the mechanical stability of multitubes. How do the material properties, applied tractions and geometry of elastic rods and tubes influence their critical buckling pressure and mode of buckling? We will discuss the phenomenon of differential growth, an important factor in the mechanical behaviour of such systems and introduce a mathematical framework, which can be used to model differential growth in soft tissues and predict the onset of buckling. We will also present a small number of applications for this research.

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
13 November 2012
13:15
Arnaud Lionnet
Abstract

I will present the basics of mathematical finance, and what probabilists do there. More specifically, I will present the basic concepts of replication of a derivative contract by trading, market completeness, arbitrage, and the link with Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (BSDEs).

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
30 October 2012
13:15
Nadia Smith
Abstract

High-pressure freezing processes are a novel emerging technology in food processing,
offering significant improvements to the quality of frozen foods. To be able to simulate
plateau times and thermal history under different conditions, a generalized enthalpy
model of the high-pressure shift freezing process is presented. The model includes
the effects of pressure on conservation of enthalpy and incorporates the freezing point
depression of non-dilute food samples. In addition, the significant heat-transfer effects of
convection in the pressurizing medium are accounted for by solving the two-dimensional
Navier–Stokes equations.
The next question is: is high-pressure shift freezing good also in the long run?
A growth and coarsening model for ice crystals in a very simple food system will be discussed.

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
16 October 2012
13:15
Matt Hennessy
Abstract
<p><span>When ice is raised to a temperature above its usual melting temperature</span><br /><span>of 273 K, small cylindrical discs of water form within the bulk of the</span><br /><span>ice. Subsequent internal melting of the ice causes these liquid discs to</span><br /><span>grow radially outwards. However, many experimentalists have observed</span><br /><span>that the circular interface of these discs is unstable and eventually</span><br /><span>the liquid discs turn into beautiful shapes that resemble flowers or</span><br /><span>snowflakes. As a result of their shape, these liquid figures are often</span><br /><span>called liquid snowflakes. In this talk I'll discuss a simple</span><br /><span>mathematical model of liquid snowflake formation and I'll show how a</span><br /><span>combination of analytical and numerical methods can yield much insight</span><br /><span>into the dynamics which govern their growth.</span></p>
  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
12 June 2012
13:15
Joseph Parker
Abstract

 Nuclear fusion offers the prospect of abundant clean energy production, but the physical and engineering challenges are very great. In nuclear fusion reactors, the fuel is in the form of a plasma (charged gas) which is confined at high temperature and density using a toroidal magnetic field. This configuration is susceptible to turbulence, which transports heat out of the plasma and prevents fusion. It is believed that rotating the plasma suppresses turbulence, but experiments are expensive and even modest numerical simulation requires hundreds of thousands of CPU hours. We present a numerical technique for one of the five phase-space dimensions that both improves the accuracy of the calculation and greatly reduces the resolution required.

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
29 May 2012
13:15
Huy Vu
Abstract

 Higher-order transformations are ubiquitous within data management. In relational databases, higher-order queries appear in numerous aspects including query rewriting and query specification. In XML databases, higher-order functions are natural due to the close connection of XML query languages with functional programming. We investigate higher-order query languages that combine higher- order transformations with ordinary database query languages. We define higher-order query languages based on Relational Algebra and XQuery. We also study basic problems for these query languages including evaluation, containment, and type inference. We show that even though evaluating these higher-order query languages is non-elementary, there are subclasses that are polynomially reducible to evaluation for ordinary query languages.

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
15 May 2012
13:15
Katie Leonard
Abstract

 The use of tissue engineered implants could facilitate unions in situations where there is loss of bone or non-union, thereby increasing healing time, reducing the risk of infections and hence reducing morbidity. Currently engineered bone tissue is not of sufficient quality to be used in widespread clinical practice.  In order to improve experimental design, and thereby the quality of the tissue-constructs, the underlying biological processes involved need to be better understood. In conjunction with experimentalists, we consider the effect hydrodynamic pressure has on the development and regulation of bone, in a bioreactor designed specifically for this purpose. To answer the experimentalists’ specific questions, we have developed two separate models; in this talk I will present one of these, a multiphase partial differential equation model to describe the evolution of the cells, extracellular matrix that they deposit, the culture medium and the scaffold.  The model is then solved using the finite element method using the deal.II library.

  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar
1 May 2012
13:15
Lucas Jeub
Abstract
With the advent of powerful computers and the internet, our ability to collect and store large amounts of data has improved tremendously over the past decades. As a result, methods for extracting useful information from these large datasets have gained in importance. In many cases the data can be conveniently represented as a network, where the nodes are entities of interest and the edges encode the relationships between them. Community detection aims to identify sets of nodes that are more densely connected internally than to the rest of the network. Many popular methods for partitioning a network into communities rely on heuristically optimising a quality function. This approach can run into problems for large networks, as the quality function often becomes near degenerate with many near optimal partitions that can potentially be quite different from each other. In this talk I will show that this near degeneracy, rather than being a severe problem, can potentially allow us to extract additional information
  • Junior Applied Mathematics Seminar

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