Past Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops

4 November 2016
10:00
Gil travish
Abstract

Currently all medical x-ray imaging is performed using point-like sources which produce cone or fan beams. In planar radiology the source is fixed relative to the patient and detector array and therefore only 2D images can be produced. In CT imaging, the source and detector are rotated about the patient and through reconstruction (such as Radon methods), a 3D image can be formed. In Tomosynthesis, a limited range of angles are captured which greatly reduces the complexity and cost of the device and the dose exposure to the patient while largely preserving the clinical utility of the 3D images. Conventional tomosynthesis relies on mechanically moving a source about a fixed trajectory (e.g. an arc) and capturing multiple images along that path. Adaptix is developing a fixed source with an electronically addressable array that allows for a motion-free tomosynthesis system. The Adaptix approach has many advantages including reduced cost, portability, angular information acquired in 2D, and the ability to shape the radiation field (by selectively activating only certain emitters).


The proposed work would examine the effects of patient motion and apply suitable corrections to the image reconstruction (or raw data). Many approaches have been considered in the literature for motion correction, and only some of these may be of use in tomosynthesis. The study will consider which approaches are optimal, and apply them to the present geometry.


A related but perhaps distinct area of investigation is the use of “structured light” techniques to encode the x-rays and extract additional information from the imaging. Most conventional structured light approaches are not suitable for transmissive operation nor for the limited control available in x-rays. Selection of appropriate techniques and algorithms, however, could prove very powerful and yield new ways of performing medical imaging.


Adaptix is a start-up based at the Begbroke Centre for Innovation and Enterprise. Adaptix is transforming planar X-ray – the diagnostic imaging modality most widely used in healthcare worldwide. We are adding low-dose 3D capability – digital tomosynthesis - to planar X-ray while making it more affordable and truly portable so radiology can more easily travel to the patient. This transformation will enhance patient’s access to the world’s most important imaging technologies and likely increases the diagnostic accuracy for many high incidence conditions such as cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, lung cancer and osteoporosis. 
 

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
17 June 2016
10:00
Abstract

T cells are important white blood cells that continually circulate in the body in search of the molecular signatures ('antigens') of infection and cancer. We (and many other labs) are trying to construct models of the T cell signalling network that can be used to predict how ligand binding (at the surface of the cell) controls gene express (in the nucleus). To do this, we stimulate T cells with various ligands (input) and measure products of gene expression (output) and then try to determine which model must be invoked to explain the data. The challenge that we face is finding 1) unique models and 2) scaling the method to many different input and outputs.

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
10 June 2016
10:00
Alexander Denev
Abstract

Markit is a leading global provider of financial information services. We provide products that enhance transparency, reduce risk and improve operational efficiency.

We wish to find ways to automatically detect and label ‘extreme’ occurrences in a time series such as structural breaks, nonlinearities, and spikes (i.e. outliers). We hope to detect these occurrences in the levels, returns and volatility of a time series or any other transformation of it (e.g. moving average).

We also want to look for the same types of occurrences in the multivariate case in a set of time series through measures such as e.g. correlations, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix etc. The number of time series involved is of the order 3x10^6.

We wish to explain the appearance of an ‘extreme’ occurrence or a cluster of occurrences endogenously, as an event conditional on the values of the time series in the set, both contemporaneously and/or as conditional on their time lags.

Furthermore, we would like to classify the events that caused the occurrence in some major categories, if found e.g. shock to oil supply, general risk aversion, migrations etc. both algorithmically and by allowing human corrective judgement (which could become the basis for supervised learning).

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
3 June 2016
10:00
Abstract

We are entering a world where unmanned vehicles will be common. They have the potential to dramatically decrease the cost of services whilst simultaneously increasing the safety record of whole industries.

Autonomous technologies will, by their very nature, shift decision making responsibility from individual humans to technology systems. The 2010 Flash Crash showed how such systems can create rare (but not inconceivably rare) and highly destructive positive feedback loops which can severely disrupt a sector.

In the case of Unmanned Air Systems (UAS), how might similar effects obstruct the development of the Commercial UAS industry? Is it conceivable that, like the high frequency trading industry at the heart of the Flash Crash, the algorithms we provide UAS to enable autonomy could decrease the risk of small incidents whilst increasing the risk of severe accidents? And if so, what is the relationship between probability and consequence of incidents?

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
27 May 2016
10:00
Abstract

We aim to determine how cells faithfully complete genome replication. Accurate and complete genome replication is essential for all life. A single DNA replication error in a single cell division can give rise to a genomic disorder. However, almost all experimental data are ensemble; collected from millions of cells. We used a combination of high-resolution, genomic-wide DNA replication data, mathematical modelling and single cell experiments to demonstrate that ensemble data mask the significant heterogeneity present within a cell population; see [1-4]. Therefore, the pattern of replication origin usage and dynamics of genome replication in individual cells remains largely unknown. We are now developing cutting-edge single molecule methods and allied mathematical models to determine the dynamics of genome replication at the DNA sequence level in normal and perturbed human cells.

[1] de Moura et al., 2010, Nucleic Acids Research, 38: 5623-5633

[2] Retkute et al, 2011, PRL, 107:068103

[3] Retkute et al, 2012, PRE, 86:031916

[4] Hawkins et al., 2013, Cell Reports, 5:1132-41

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
6 May 2016
10:00
Siddharth Arora
Abstract

Over the years, nonlinear and nonparametric models have attracted a great deal of attention. This is mainly due to the fact that most time series arising from the real-world exhibit nonlinear behavior, whereas nonparametric models, in principle, do not make strong prior assumptions about the true functional form of the underlying data generating process.

 

In this workshop, we will focus on the use of nonlinear and nonparametric modelling approaches for time series forecasting, and discuss the need and implications of accurate forecasts for informed policy and decision-making. Crucially, we will discuss some of the major challenges (and potential solutions) in probabilistic time series forecasting, with emphasis on: (1) Modelling in the presence of regime shifts, (2) Effect of model over-fitting on out-of-sample forecast accuracy, and, (3) Importance of using naïve benchmarks and different performance scores for model comparison. We will discuss the applications of different modelling approaches for: Macroeconomics (US GNP), Energy (electricity consumption recorded via smart meters), and Healthcare (remote detection of disease symptoms).

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
4 March 2016
10:00
Mike Newman
Abstract

On the railway network, for example, there is a large base of installed equipment with a useful life of many years.  This equipment has condition monitoring that can flag a fault when a measured parameter goes outside the permitted range.  If we can use existing measurements to predict when this would occur, preventative maintenance could be targeted more effectively and faults reduced.  As an example, we will consider the current supplied to a points motor as a function of time in each operational cycle.

  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops
26 February 2016
10:00
Abstract
Ionic liquids are salts, composed solely of positive and negative ions, which are liquid under ambient conditions. Despite an increasing range of successful applications, there remain fundamental challenges in understanding the intermolecular forces and propagation of fields in ionic liquids. 
I am an experimental scientist, and in my laboratory we study thin films of liquids. The aim is to discover their molecular and surface interactions and fluid properties in confinement. In this talk I will describe the experiments and show some results which have led to better understanding of ionic liquids. I will then show some measurements which currently have no understanding attached! 
  • Industrial and Interdisciplinary Workshops

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