Past Partial Differential Equations Seminar

13 June 2016
Laurent Dietrich

we study a new mechanism of reaction-diffusion involving a line with fast diffusion, proposed to model the influence of transportation networks on biological invasions. 
We will be interested in the existence and uniqueness of traveling waves solutions, and especially focus on their velocity. We will show that it grows as the square root of the diffusivity on the line, generalizing and showing the robustness of a result by Berestycki, Roquejoffre and Rossi (2013), and provide a characterization of the growth ratio thanks to an hypoelliptic (a priori) degenerate system. 
Finally we will take a look at the dynamics and show that the waves attract a large class of initial data. In particular, we will shed light on a new mechanism of attraction which enables the waves to attract initial data with size independent of the diffusion on the line : this is a new result, in the sense than usually, enhancement of propagation has to be paid by strengthening the assumptions on the size of the initial data for invasion to happen.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
16 May 2016
Theodora Bourni
In this talk we discuss a new second order parabolic evolution equation
for hypersurfaces in space-time initial data sets, that generalizes mean
curvature flow (MCF). In particular, the 'null mean curvature' - a
space-time extrinsic curvature quantity - replaces the usual mean
curvature in the evolution equation defining MCF.  This flow is motivated
by the study of black holes and mass/energy inequalities in general
relativity. We present a theory of weak solutions using the level-set
method and  outline a natural application of the flow as a parabolic
approach to finding outermost marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS),
which play the role of quasi-local black hole boundaries in general
relativity. This is joint work with Kristen Moore.
  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
9 May 2016
Ethan O'Brien

We explore a specific system in which geometry and loading conspire to generate fine-scale wrinkling. This system -- a twisted ribbon held with small tension -- was examined experimentally by Chopin and Kudrolli 
[Phys Rev Lett 111, 174302, 2013].

There is a regime where the ribbon wrinkles near its center. A recent paper by Chopin, D\'{e}mery, and Davidovitch models this regime using a von-K\'{a}rm\'{a}n-like 
variational framework [J Elasticity 119, 137-189, 2015]. Our contribution is to give upper and lower bounds for the minimum energy as the thickness tends to zero. Since the bounds differ by a thickness-independent prefactor, we have determined how the minimum energy scales with thickness. Along the way we find estimates on Sobolev norms of the minimizers, which provide some information on the character of the wrinkling. This is a joint work with  Robert V. Kohn in Courant Institute, NYU.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
25 April 2016
Shiwu Yang

It has been shown that there are global solutions to 
Maxwell-Klein-Gordon equations in Minkowski space with finite energy 
data. However, very little is known about the asymptotic behavior of the 
solution. In this talk, I will present recent progress on the decay 
properties of the solutions. We show the quantitative energy flux decay 
of the solutions with data merely bounded in some weighted energy space. 
The results in particular hold in the presence of large total charge. 
This is the first result that gives a complete and precise description 
of the global behavior of large nonlinear fields.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
7 March 2016
Stefano Olla

In acoustic materials (non null sound velocity), there is a clear separation of scale between the relaxation to mechanical equilibrium, governed by Euler equations, and the slower relaxation to thermal equilibrium, governed by heat equation if thermal conductivity is finite. In one dimension in acoustic systems, thermal conductivity is diverging and the thermal equilibrium is reached by a superdiffusion governed by a fractional heat equation. In non-acoustic materials it seems that there is not such separation of scales, and thermal and mechanical equilibriums are reached at the same time scale, governed by a Euler-Bernoulli beam equation. We prove such macroscopic behaviors in chains of oscillators with dynamics perturbed by a random local exchange of momentum, such that energy and momentum are conserved. (Works in collaborations with T. Komorowski).

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
4 March 2016
Henri Berestycki

I will discuss some reaction-diffusion equations of bistable type motivated by biology and medicine. The aim is to understand the effect of the shape of the domain on propagation or on blocking of advancing waves. I will first describe the motivations of these questions and present a result about the existence of generalized “transition waves”. I will then discuss various geometric conditions that lead to either blocking, or partial propagation, or complete propagation. These questions involve new qualitative results for some non-linear elliptic and parabolic partial differential equations. I report here on joint work with Juliette Bouhours and Guillemette Chapuisat.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
29 February 2016
David Bourne

While it is believed that many particle systems have periodic ground states, there are few rigorous crystallization results in two and more dimensions. In this talk I will show how results by the Hungarian geometer László Fejes Tóth can be used to prove that an idealised block copolymer energy is minimised by the triangular lattice. I will also discuss a numerical method for a broader class of optimal location problems and some conjectures about minimisers in three dimensions. This is joint work with Mark Peletier, Steven Roper and Florian Theil. 

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar