In this talk I present a recent result about the free-boundary problem for 2D current-vortex sheets in ideal incompressible magneto-hydrodynamics near the transition point between the linearized stability and instability. In order to study the dynamics of the discontinuity near the onset of the instability, Hunter and Thoo have introduced an asymptotic quadratically nonlinear integro-differential equation for the amplitude of small perturbations of the planar discontinuity. We study such amplitude equation and prove its nonlinear well-posedness under a stability condition given in terms of a longitudinal strain of the fluid along the discontinuity. This is a joint work with A.Morando and P.Trebeschi.

# Past PDE CDT Lunchtime Seminar

We investigate the problem of optimizing the shape and location of actuators or sensors for evolution systems driven by a partial differential equation, like for instance a wave equation, a Schrödinger equation, or a parabolic system, on an arbitrary domain Omega, in arbitrary dimension, with boundary conditions if there is a boundary, which can be of Dirichlet, Neumann, mixed or Robin. This kind of problem is frequently encountered in applications where one aims, for instance, at maximizing the quality of reconstruction of the solution, using only a partial observation. From the mathematical point of view, using probabilistic considerations we model this problem as the problem of maximizing what we call a randomized observability constant, over all possible subdomains of Omega having a prescribed measure. The spectral analysis of this problem reveals intimate connections with the theory of quantum chaos. More precisely, if the domain Omega satisfies some quantum ergodic assumptions then we provide a solution to this problem. These works are in collaboration with Emmanuel Trélat (Univ. Paris 6) and Enrique Zuazua (BCAM Bilbao, Spain).

In the presence of a translation space-like Killing field the 3 + 1 vacuum Einstein equations reduce to the 2 + 1 Einstein equations with a scalar field. We work in generalised wave coordinates. In this gauge Einstein equations can be written as a system of quaslinear quadratic wave equations. The main difficulty is due to the weak decay of free solutions to the wave equation in 2 dimensions. To prove long time existence of solutions, we have to rely on the particular structure of Einstein equations in wave coordinates. We also have to carefully choose the behaviour of our metric in the exterior region to enforce convergence to Minkowski space-time at time-like infinity.

exhibit damping close to linear shear flows.

The mechanism behind this "inviscid

In this talk I give a proof of linear stability,

The generation of functional interfaces such as superconducting and ferroelectric twin boundaries requires new ways to nucleate as many interfaces as possible in bulk materials and thin films. Materials with high densities of twin boundaries are often ferroelastics and martensites. Here we show that the nucleation and propagation of twin boundaries depend sensitively on temperature and system size. The geometrical mechanisms for the evolution of the ferroelastic microstructure under strain deformation remain similar in all thermal regimes, whereas their thermodynamic behavior differs dramatically: on heating, from power-law statistics via the Kohlrausch law to a Vogel-Fulcher law.We find that the complexity of the pattern can be well characterized by the number of junctions between twin boundaries. Materials with soft bulk moduli have much higher junction densities than those with hard bulk moduli. Soft materials also show an increase in the junction density with diminishing sample size. The change of the complexity and the number density of twin boundaries represents an important step forward in the development of ‘domain boundary engineering’, where the functionality of the materials is directly linked to the domain pattern.

We consider the layer potentials associated with operators $L=-\mathrm{div}A \nabla$ acting in the upper half-space $\mathbb{R}^{n+1}_+$, $n\geq 2$, where the coefficient matrix $A$ is complex, elliptic, bounded, measurable, and $t$-independent. A "Calder\'{o}n--Zygmund" theory is developed for the boundedness of the layer potentials under the assumption that solutions of the equation $Lu=0$ satisfy interior De Giorgi-Nash-Moser type estimates. In particular, we prove that $L^2$ estimates for the layer potentials imply sharp $L^p$ and endpoint space estimates. The method of layer potentials is then used to obtain solvability of boundary value problems. This is joint work with Steve Hofmann and Marius Mitrea.

We shall discuss the problem of the 'trend to equilibrium' for a degenerate kinetic linear Fokker-Planck equation. The linear equation is assumed to be degenerate on a subregion of non-zero Lebesgue measure in the physical space (i.e., the equation is just a transport equation with a Hamiltonian structure in the subregion). We shall give necessary and sufficient geometric condition on the region of degeneracy which guarantees the exponential decay of the semigroup generated by the degenerate kinetic equation towards a global Maxwellian equilibrium in a weighted Hilbert space. The approach is strongly influenced by C. Villani's strategy of 'Hypocoercivity' from Kinetic theory and the 'Bardos-Lebeau-Rauch' geometric condition from Control theory. This is a joint work with Frederic Herau and Clement Mouhot.

Those mentioned in the title are integral functionals of the Calculus of Variations characterized by the fact of having an integrand switching between two different kinds of degeneracies, dictated by a modulating coefficient. They have introduced by Zhikov in the context of Homogenization and to give new examples of the related Lavrentiev phenomenon. In this talk I will present some recent results aimed at drawing a complete regularity theory for minima.