Time parallelisation techniques provide an additional direction for the parallelisation of the solution of time-dependent PDEs or of systems of ODEs. In particular, the Parareal algorithm has imposed itself as the canonical choice to achieve parallelisation in time, also because of its simplicity and flexibility. The algorithm works by splitting the time domain in chunks, and iteratively alternating a prediction step (parallel), in which a "fine" solver is employed to achieve a high-accuracy solution within each chunk, to a correction step (serial) where a "coarse" solver is used to quickly propagate the update between the chunks. However, the stability of the method has proven to be highly sensitive to the choice of fine and coarse solver, even more so when applied to chaotic systems or advection-dominated problems.

In this presentation, an alternative formulation of Parareal is discussed. This aims to conduct the update by estimating directly the sensitivity of the solution of the integration with respect to the initial conditions, thus eliminating altogether the necessity of choosing the most apt coarse solver, and potentially boosting its convergence properties.