Networks Seminar

Please note that the list below only shows forthcoming events, which may not include regular events that have not yet been entered for the forthcoming term. Please see the past events page for a list of all seminar series that the department has on offer.

Past events in this series
9 October 2018
12:00
Lyuba V. Bozhilova
Abstract

Many protein interaction databases provide confidence scores based on the experimental evidence underpinning each in- teraction. The databases recommend that protein interac- tion networks (PINs) are built by thresholding on these scores. We demonstrate that varying the score threshold can re- sult in PINs with significantly different topologies. We ar- gue that if a node metric is to be useful for extracting bio- logical signal, it should induce similar node rankings across PINs obtained at different thresholds. We propose three measures—rank continuity, identifiability, and instability— to test for threshold robustness. We apply these to a set of twenty-five metrics of which we identify four: number of edges in the step-1 ego network, the leave-one-out dif- ference in average redundancy, average number of edges in the step-1 ego network, and natural connectivity, as robust across medium-high confidence thresholds. Our measures show good agreement across PINs from different species and data sources. However, analysis of synthetically gen- erated scored networks shows that robustness results are context-specific, and depend both on network topology and on how scores are placed across network edges. 

6 November 2018
12:00
Florian Klimm
Abstract

In this seminar, I first discuss a paper by Aslak et al. on the detection of intermittent communities with the Infomap algorithm. Second, I present own work on the detection of intermittent communities with modularity-maximisation methods. 

Many real-world networks represent dynamic systems with interactions that change over time, often in uncoordinated ways and at irregular intervals. For example, university students connect in intermittent groups that repeatedly form and dissolve based on multiple factors, including their lectures, interests, and friends. Such dynamic systems can be represented as multilayer networks where each layer represents a snapshot of the temporal network. In this representation, it is crucial that the links between layers accurately capture real dependencies between those layers. Often, however, these dependencies are unknown. Therefore, current methods connect layers based on simplistic assumptions that do not capture node-level layer dependencies. For example, connecting every node to itself in other layers with the same weight can wipe out dependencies between intermittent groups, making it difficult or even impossible to identify them. In this paper, we present a principled approach to estimating node-level layer dependencies based on the network structure within each layer. We implement our node-level coupling method in the community detection framework Infomap and demonstrate its performance compared to current methods on synthetic and real temporal networks. We show that our approach more effectively constrains information inside multilayer communities so that Infomap can better recover planted groups in multilayer benchmark networks that represent multiple modes with different groups and better identify intermittent communities in real temporal contact networks. These results suggest that node-level layer coupling can improve the modeling of information spreading in temporal networks and better capture intermittent community structure.

Aslak, Ulf, Martin Rosvall, and Sune Lehmann. "Constrained information flows in temporal networks reveal intermittent communities." Physical Review E 97.6 (2018): 062312.

 

20 November 2018
12:00
Francisco Aparecido Rodrigues
Abstract

Disease transmission and rumour spreading are ubiquitous in social and technological networks. In this talk, we will present our last results on the modelling of rumour and disease spreading in multilayer networks.  We will derive analytical expressions for the epidemic threshold of the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) and susceptible-infected-recovered dynamics, as well as upper and lower bounds for the disease prevalence in the steady state for the SIS scenario. Using the quasistationary state method, we numerically show the existence of disease localization and the emergence of two or more susceptibility peaks in a multiplex network. Moreover, we will introduce a model of epidemic spreading with awareness, where the disease and information are propagated in different layers with different time scales. We will show that the time scale determines whether the information awareness is beneficial or not to the disease spreading. 

4 December 2018
12:00
Gergely Röst
Abstract

Joint work with Zsolt Vizi (Bolyai Institute, University of Szeged, Hungary), Istvan Kiss (Department
of Mathematics, University of Sussex, United Kingdom)

Pairwise models have been proven to be a flexible framework for analytical approximations
of stochastic epidemic processes on networks that are in many situations much more accurate
than mean field compartmental models. The non-Markovian aspects of disease transmission
are undoubtedly important, but very challenging to incorporate them into both numerical
stochastic simulations and analytical investigations. Here we present a generalization of
pairwise models to non-Markovian epidemics on networks. For the case of infectious periods
of fixed length, the resulting pairwise model is a system of delay diff erential equations, which
shows excellent agreement with results based on the explicit stochastic simulations. For more
general distribution classes (uniform, gamma, lognormal etc.) the resulting models are PDEs
that can be transformed into systems of integro-diff erential equations. We derive pairwise
reproduction numbers and relations for the final epidemic size, and initiate a systematic
study of the impact of the shape of the particular distributions of recovery times on how
the time evolution of the disease dynamics play out.

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