With the evolution towards the IoT and cyber-physical systems, the role that the underlying hardware plays in securing an application is becoming more prominent. Hardware can be used constructively, e.g. for accelerating computationally- intensive cryptographic algorithms. Hardware can also be used destructively, e.g., for physical attacks or transistor-level Trojans which are virtually impossible to detect. In this talk, we will present case studies for high-speed cryptography used in car2x communication and recent research on low-level hardware Trojans.