Faster lead-acid battery simulations from porous-electrode theory: Part I. Physical model

Author: 

Sulzer, V
Chapman, S
Please, C
Howey, D
Monroe, C

Publication Date: 

3 July 2019

Journal: 

Journal of The Electrochemical Society

Last Updated: 

2020-10-04T12:04:05.327+01:00

Issue: 

12

Volume: 

166

DOI: 

10.1149/2.0301910jes

abstract: 

An isothermal porous-electrode model of a discharging lead-acid battery is
presented, which includes an extension of concentrated-solution theory that
accounts for excluded-volume effects, local pressure variation, and a detailed
microscopic water balance. The approach accounts for three typically neglected
physical phenomena: convection, pressure diffusion, and variation of liquid
volume with state of charge. Rescaling of the governing equations uncovers a
set of fundamental dimensionless parameters that control the battery's
response. Total volume change during discharge and nonuniform pressure prove to
be higher-order effects in cells where variations occur in just one spatial
dimension. A numerical solution is developed and exploited to predict transient
cell voltages and internal concentration profiles in response to a range of
C-rates. The dependence of discharge capacity on C-rate deviates substantially
from Peukert's simple power law: charge capacity is concentration-limited at
low C-rates, and voltage-limited at high C-rates. The model is fit to
experimental data, showing good agreement.

Symplectic id: 

1083076

Submitted to ORA: 

Submitted

Publication Type: 

Journal Article