I will construct the differential geometric, gauge-theoretic, and duality covariant model of classical four-dimensional Abelian gauge theory on an orientable four-manifold of arbitrary topology. I will do so by implementing the Dirac-Schwinger-Zwanziger (DSZ) integrality condition in classical Abelian gauge theories with general duality structure and interpreting the associated sheaf cohomology groups geometrically. As a result, I will obtain that four-dimensional Abelian gauge theories are theories of connections on Siegel bundles, namely principal bundles whose structure group is the generically non-abelian disconnected group of automorphisms of an integral affine symplectic torus. This differential-geometric model includes the electric and magnetic gauge potentials on an equal footing and describes the equations of motion through a first-order polarized self-duality condition for the curvature of a connection. This condition is reminiscent of the theory of four-dimensional Euclidean instantons, even though we consider a two-derivative theory in Lorentzian signature. Finally, I will elaborate on various applications of this differential-geometric model, including a mathematically rigorous description of electromagnetic duality in Abelian gauge theory and the reduction of the polarized self-duality condition to a Riemannian three-manifold, which gives as a result a new type of Bogomolny equation.