Mon, 18 Jan 2021
14:15
Virtual

Representation theory in geometric complexity theory

Christian Ikenmeyer
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract

Geometric complexity theory is an approach towards solving computational complexity lower bounds questions using algebraic geometry and representation theory. This talk contains an introduction to geometric complexity theory and a presentation of some recent results. Along the way connections to the study of secant varieties and to classical combinatorial and representation theoretic conjectures will be pointed out.

Fri, 12 Feb 2021

15:00 - 16:00
Virtual

Applications of Topology and Geometry to Crystal Structure Prediction

Phil Smith
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract

Crystal Structure Prediction aims to reveal the properties that stable crystalline arrangements of a molecule have without stepping foot in a laboratory, consequently speeding up the discovery of new functional materials. Since it involves producing large datasets that themselves have little structure, an appropriate classification of crystals could add structure to these datasets and further streamline the process. We focus on geometric invariants, in particular introducing the density fingerprint of a crystal. After exploring its computations via Brillouin zones, we go on to show how it is invariant under isometries, stable under perturbations and complete at least for an open and dense space of crystal structures.

 

Mon, 06 Aug 2018
14:45
L5

COW seminar: Stability conditions with massless objects

Jon Woolf
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract

I will explain how the definition of Bridgeland stability condition on a triangulated category C can be generalised to allow for massless objects. This allows one to construct a partial compactification of the stability space Stab(C) in which each `boundary stratum' is related to Stab(C/N) for a thick subcategory N of C, and has a neighbourhood which fibres over (an open subset of) Stab(N). This is joint work with Nathan Broomhead, David Pauksztello, and David Ploog.
 

Thu, 23 Feb 2017

14:00 - 15:00
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, nr Didcot

On Imaging Models Based On Fractional Order Derivatives Regularizer And Their Fast Algorithms

Prof. Ke Chen
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract


In variational imaging and other inverse problem modeling, regularisation plays a major role. In recent years, high order regularizers such as the total generalised variation, the mean curvature and the Gaussian curvature are increasingly studied and applied, and many improved results over the widely-used total variation model are reported.
Here we first introduce the fractional order derivatives and the total fractional-order variation which provides an alternative  regularizer and is not yet formally analysed. We demonstrate that existence and uniqueness properties of the new model can be analysed in a fractional BV space, and, equally, the new model performs as well as the high order regularizers (which do not yet have much theory). 
In the usual framework, the algorithms of a fractional order model are not fast due to dense matrices involved. Moreover, written in a Bregman framework, the resulting Sylvester equation with Toeplitz coefficients can be solved efficiently by a preconditioned solver. Further ideas based on adaptive integration can also improve the computational efficiency in a dramatic way.
 Numerical experiments will be given to illustrate the advantages of the new regulariser for both restoration and registration problems.
 

Thu, 09 Oct 2014

14:00 - 15:00
L5

Variational segmentation models for selective extraction of features in an image – challenges in modelling, algorithms and applications

Professor Ke Chen
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract

Mathematical imaging is not only a multidisciplinary research area but also a major cross-discipline subject within mathematical sciences as  image analysis techniques involve differential geometry, optimization, nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), mathematical analysis, computational algorithms and numerical analysis. Segmentation refers to the essential problem in imaging and vision  of automatically detecting objects in an image.

 

In this talk I first review some various models and techniques in the variational framework that are used for segmentation of images, with the purpose of discussing the state of arts rather than giving a comprehensive survey. Then I introduce the practically demanding task of detecting local features in a large image and our recent segmentation methods using energy minimization and  PDEs. To ensure uniqueness and fast solution, we reformulate one non-convex functional as a convex one and further consider how to adapt the additive operator splitting method for subsequent solution. Finally I show our preliminary work to attempt segmentation of blurred images in the framework of joint deblurring and segmentation.

  

This talk covers joint work with Jianping Zhang, Lavdie Rada, Bryan Williams, Jack Spencer (Liverpool, UK), N. Badshah and H. Ali (Pakistan). Other collaborators in imaging in general include T. F. Chan, R. H. Chan, B. Yu,  L. Sun, F. L. Yang (China), C. Brito (Mexico), N. Chumchob (Thailand),  M. Hintermuller (Germany), Y. Q. Dong (Denmark), X. C. Tai (Norway) etc. [Related publications from   http://www.liv.ac.uk/~cmchenke ]

Thu, 09 Oct 2014
14:00
L5

TBA

Professor Ke Chen
(University of Liverpool)
Fri, 18 Oct 2013

14:00 - 15:00
L5

Exact representations of Susceptible-Infectious-Removed (SIR) epidemic dynamics on networks

Dr Kieran Sharkey
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract
The majority of epidemic models fall into two categories: 1) deterministic models represented by differential equations and 2) stochastic models which can be evaluated by simulation. In this presentation I will discuss the precise connection between these models. Until recently, exact correspondence was only established in situations exhibiting large degrees of symmetry or for infinite populations.

I will consider SIR dynamics on finite static contact networks. I will give an overview of two provably exact deterministic representations of the underlying stochastic model for tree-like networks. These are the message passing description of Karrer and Newman and my pair-based moment closure representation. I will discuss relationship between the two representations and the relative merits of both.

Tue, 04 May 2010

14:30 - 15:30
L3

Independent sets in bipartite graphs and approximating the partition function of the ferromagnetic Potts model

Leslie Goldberg
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract
This talk considers the problem of sampling an independent set uniformly at random from a bipartite graph (equivalently, the problem of approximately counting independent sets in a bipartite graph). I will start by discussing some natural Markov chain approaches to this problem, and show why these lead to slow convergence. It turns out that the problem is interesting in terms of computational complexity – in fact, it turns out to be equivalent to a large number of other problems, for example, approximating the partition function of the “ferromagnetic Ising model’’ (a 2-state particle model from statistical physics) in the presence of external fields (which are essentially vertex weights). These problems are all complete with respect to approximation-preserving reductions for a logically-defined complexity class, which means that if they can be approximated efficiently, so can the entire class. In recent work, we show some connections between this class of problems and the problem of approximating the partition function of the ``ferromagnetic Potts model’’ which is a generalisation of the Ising model—our result holds for q>2 spins. (This corresponds to the approximation problem for the Tutte polynomial in the upper quadrant

above the hyperbola q=2.) That result was presented in detail at a recent talk given by Mark Jerrum at Oxford’s one-day meeting in combinatorics. So I will just give a brief description (telling you what the Potts model is and what the result is) and then conclude with some more recently discovered connections to counting graph homomorphisms and approximating the cycle index polynomial.

Thu, 03 Jun 2010

16:30 - 17:30
DH 1st floor SR

Structured media with defects: asymptotic models and localisation

Alexander Movchan
(University of Liverpool)
Abstract
Bloch Floquet waves are considered in structured media. Such waves are dispersive and the dispersion diagrams contain stop bands. For an example of a harmonic lattice, we discuss dynamic band gap Green’s functions characterised by exponential localisation. This is followed by simple models of exponentially localised defect modes. Asymptotic models involving uniform asymptotic approximations of physical fields in structured media are compared with homogenisation approximations.
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