Fri, 20 May 2022

14:00 - 15:00
L4

Multiscale Image Based Modelling of Plant-Soil Interaction

Tiina Roose
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

We rely on soil to support the crops on which we depend. Less obviously we also rely on soil for a host of 'free services' from which we benefit. For example, soil buffers the hydrological system greatly reducing the risk of flooding after heavy rain; soil contains very large quantities of carbon, which would otherwise be released into the atmosphere where it would contribute to climate change. Given its importance it is not surprising that soil, especially its interaction with plant roots, has been a focus of many researchers. However the complex and opaque nature of soil has always made it a difficult medium to study. 

In this talk I will show how we can build a state of the art image based model of the physical and chemical properties of soil and soil-root interactions, i.e., a quantitative, model of the rhizosphere based on fundamental scientific laws.
This will be realised by a combination of innovative, data rich fusion of structural and chemical imaging methods, integration of experimental efforts to both support and challenge modelling capabilities at the scale of underpinning bio-physical processes, and application of mathematically sound homogenisation/scale-up techniques to translate knowledge from rhizosphere to field scale. The specific science questions I will address with these techniques are: (1) how does the soil around the root, the rhizosphere, function and influence the soil ecosystems at multiple scales, (2) what is the role of root- soil interface micro morphology on plant nutrient uptake, (3) what is the effect of plant exuded mucilage on the soil morphology, mechanics and resulting field and ecosystem scale soil function and (4) how to translate this knowledge from the single root scale to root system, field and ecosystem scale in order to predict how the climate change, different soil management strategies and plant breeding will influence the soil fertility. 

Thu, 24 Feb 2022

16:00 - 17:00
L4

Euler characteristics and epsilon constants of curves over finite fields - some wild stuff

Bernhard Koeck
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

Let X be a smooth projective curve over a finite field equipped with an action of a finite group G. I’ll first briefly introduce the corresponding Artin L-function and a certain equivariant Euler characteristic. The main result will be a precise relation between the epsilon constants appearing in the functional equations of Artin L-functions and that Euler characteristic if the projection X  X/G is at most weakly ramified. This generalises a theorem of Chinburg for the tamely ramified case. I’ll end with some speculations in the arbitrarily wildly ramified case. This is joint work with Helena Fischbacher-Weitz and with Adriano Marmora.

Mon, 24 Jan 2022

14:00 - 15:00
Virtual

Exploiting low dimensional data structures in volumetric X-ray imaging

Thomas Blumensath
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

Volumetric X-ray tomography is used in many areas, including applications in medical imaging, many fields of scientific investigation as well as several industrial settings. Yet complex X-ray physics and the significant size of individual x-ray tomography data-sets poses a range of data-science challenges from the development of efficient computational methods, the modelling of complex non-linear relationships, the effective analysis of large volumetric images as well as the inversion of several ill conditioned inverse problems, all of which prevent the application of these techniques in many advanced imaging settings of interest. This talk will highlight several applications were specific data-science issues arise and showcase a range of approaches developed recently at the University of Southampton to overcome many of these obstacles.

Mon, 29 Nov 2021
12:45
L5

Scattering amplitudes and tropical Grassmannians

Omer Gurdogan
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

The analytic structure of scattering amplitudes exhibit striking
properties that are not at all evident from the first principles of
Quantum Field Theory. These are often rich and powerful enough to be
considered as their defining features, and this makes the problem of
finding a set of universal rules a compelling one. I will review the
recently mounting evidence for the relevance of tropical Grassmannians
in this respect, including implications on symbol alphabets and
adjacency conditions

Thu, 06 May 2021
10:00
Virtual

Lattices in non-positive curvature

Sam Hughes
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

In this talk I will introduce the study of lattices in locally compact groups through their actions CAT(0) spaces. This is an extremely rich class of groups including S-arithmetic groups acting on products of symmetric spaces and buildings, right angled Artin and Coxeter groups acting on polyhedral complexes, Burger-Mozes simple groups acting on products of trees, and the recent CAT(0) but non biautomatic groups of Leary and Minasyan. If time permits I will discuss some of my recent work related to the Leary-Minasyan groups.

Wed, 10 Feb 2021
10:00
Virtual

Uniformly proper actions and finite-order elements

Vladimir Vankov
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

We will discuss a generalisation of hyperbolic groups, from the group actions point of view. By studying torsion, we will see how this can help to answer questions about ordinary hyperbolic groups.

Fri, 24 Jan 2020

15:00 - 16:00
N3.12

The topology and geometry of molecular conformational spaces and energy landscapes

Ingrid Membrillo-Solis
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

Molecules are dynamical systems that can adopt a variety of three dimensional conformations which, in general, differ in energy and physical properties. The identification of energetically favourable conformations is fundamental in molecular physics and computational chemistry, since it is closely related to important open problems such as the prediction of the folding of proteins and virtual screening for drug design.
In this talk I will present theoretical and data-driven approaches to the study of molecular conformational spaces and their associated energy landscapes. I will show that the topology of the internal molecular conformational space might change after taking its quotient by the group action of a discrete group of symmetries. I will also show that geometric and topological tools for data analysis such as procrustes analysis, local dimensionality reduction, persistent homology and discrete Morse theory provide with efficient methods to study the mathematical structures underlying the molecular conformational spaces and their energy landscapes.
 

Tue, 18 Feb 2020
16:00
C1

Quasi-locality and asymptotic expanders

Jan Spakula
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

Let $X$ be a countable discrete metric space, and think of operators on $\ell^2(X)$ in terms of their $X$-by-$X$ matrix. Band operators are ones whose matrix is supported on a "band" along the main diagonal; all norm-limits of these form a C*-algebra, called uniform Roe algebra of $X$. This algebra "encodes" the large-scale (a.k.a. coarse) structure of $X$. Quasi-locality, coined by John Roe in '88, is a property of an operator on $\ell^2(X)$, designed as a condition to check whether the operator belongs to the uniform Roe algebra (without producing band operators nearby). The talk is about our attempt to make this work, and an expander-ish condition on graphs that came out of trying to find a counterexample. (Joint with: A. Tikuisis, J. Zhang, K. Li and P. Nowak.)
 

Fri, 06 Dec 2019

15:00 - 16:00
N3.12

Measuring the stability of Mapper type algorithms

Matt Burfitt
(University of Southampton)
Abstract

The goal of topological data analysis is to apply tools form algebraic topology to reveal geometric structures hidden within high dimensional data. Mapper is among its most widely and successfully applied tools providing, a framework for the geometric analysis of point cloud data. Given a number of input parameters, the Mapper algorithm constructs a graph, giving rise to a visual representation of the structure of the data.  The Mapper graph is a topological representation, where the placement of individual vertices and edges is not important, while geometric features such as loops and flares are revealed.

 

However, Mappers method is rather ad hoc, and would therefore benefit from a formal approach governing how to make the necessary choices. In this talk I will present joint work with Francisco Belchì, Jacek Brodzki, and Mahesan Niranjan. We study how sensitive to perturbations of the data the graph returned by the Mapper algorithm is given a particular tuning of parameters and how this depend on the choice of those parameters. Treating Mapper as a clustering generalisation, we develop a notion of instability of Mapper and study how it is affected by the choices. In particular, we obtain concrete reasons for high values of Mapper instability and experimentally demonstrate how Mapper instability can be used to determine good Mapper outputs.

 

Our approach tackles directly the inherent instability of the choice of clustering procedure and requires very few assumption on the specifics of the data or chosen Mapper construction, making it applicable to any Mapper-type algorithm.

Mon, 04 Mar 2019
15:45
L6

Acylindrically hyperbolic groups with strong fixed point properties

Ashot Minasyan
(University of Southampton)
Abstract


The concept of an acylindrically hyperbolic group, introduced by D. Osin, generalizes hyperbolic and relatively hyperbolic groups, and includes many other groups of interest: Out(F_n), n>1, most mapping class groups, directly indecomposable non-cyclic right angled Artin groups, most graph products, groups of deficiency at least 2, etc. Roughly speaking, a group G is acylindrically hyperbolic if there is a (possibly infinite) generating set X of G such that the Cayley graph \Gamma(G,X) is hyperbolic and the action of G on it is "sufficiently nice". Many global properties of hyperbolic/relatively hyperbolic groups have been also proved for acylindrically hyperbolic groups. 
In the talk I will discuss a method which allows to construct a common acylindrically hyperbolic quotient for any countable family of countable acylindrically hyperbolic groups. This allows us to produce acylindrically hyperbolic groups with many unexpected properties.(The talk will be based on joint work with Denis Osin.)
 

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