Orders in major electronic stock markets are executed through centralised limit order books (LOBs). Large amounts of historical data have led to extensive research modeling LOBs, for the purpose of better understanding their dynamics and building simulators as a framework for controlled experiments, when testing trading algorithms or execution strategies.Most work in the literature models the aggregate view of the limit order book, which focuses on the volume of orders at a given price level, using a point process. In addition to this information, brokers and exchanges also have information on the identity of the agents submitting the order. This leads to a more granular view of limit order book dynamics, which we attempt to model using a heterogeneous model of order flow.
We present a granular representation of the limit order book that allows to account for the origins of different orders. Using client order flow from a major broker, we analyze the properties of variables in this representation. The heterogeneity of order flow is modeled by segmenting clients into different clusters, for which we identify representative prototypes. This segmentation appears to be stable both over time as well as over different stocks. Our findings can be leveraged to build more realistic order flow models that account for the diversity of the market participants.
- Mathematical and Computational Finance Internal Seminar