We study the large-population limit of interacting particle systems posed on weighted random graphs. In that aim, we introduce a general framework for the construction of weighted random graphs, generalizing the concept of graphons. We prove that as the number of particles tends to infinity, the finite-dimensional particle system converges in probability to the solution of a deterministic graph-limit equation, in which the graphon prescribing the interaction is given by the first moment of the weighted random graph law. We also study interacting particle systems posed on switching weighted random graphs, which are obtained by resetting the weighted random graph at regular time intervals. We show that these systems converge to the same graph-limit equation, in which the interaction is prescribed by a constant-in-time graphon.