Over the last few decades, scientists have conducted extensive research on parallelisation in time, which appears to be a promising way to provide additional parallelism when parallelisation in space saturates before all parallel resources have been used. For the simulations of interest to the Culham Centre of Fusion Energy (CCFE), however, time parallelisation is highly non-trivial, because the exponential divergence of nearby trajectories makes it hard for time-parallel numerical integration to achieve convergence. In this talk we present our results for the convergence analysis of parallel-in-time algorithms on nonlinear problems, focussing on what is widely accepted to be the prototypical parallel-in-time method, the Parareal algorithm. Next, we introduce a new error function to measure convergence based on the maximal Lyapunov exponents, and show how it improves the overall parallel speedup when compared to the traditional check used in the literature. We conclude by mentioning how the above tools can help us design and analyse a novel algorithm for the long-time integration of chaotic systems that uses time-parallel algorithms as a sub-procedure.
- Numerical Analysis Group Internal Seminar