Past Partial Differential Equations Seminar

16 November 2020
16:00
Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin
Abstract

We propose a modulated free energy which combines of the method previously developed by the speaker together with the modulated energy introduced by S. Serfaty. This modulated free energy may be understood as introducing appropriate weights in the relative entropy  to cancel the more singular terms involving the divergence of the flow. This modulated free energy allows to treat singular interactions of gradient-flow type and allows potentials with large smooth part, small attractive singular part and large repulsive singular part. As an example, a full rigorous derivation (with quantitative estimates) of some chemotaxis models, such as Patlak-Keller-Segel system in the subcritical regimes, is obtained.

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
9 November 2020
16:00
Nicholas Edelen
Abstract

Hardt-Simon proved that every area-minimizing hypercone $C$ having only an isolated singularity fits into a foliation of $R^{n+1}$ by smooth, area-minimizing hypersurfaces asymptotic to $C$. We prove that if a minimal hypersurface $M$ in the unit ball $B_1 \subset R^{n+1}$ lies sufficiently close to a minimizing quadratic cone (for example, the Simons' cone), then $M \cap B_{1/2}$ is a $C^{1,\alpha}$ perturbation of either the cone itself, or some leaf of its associated foliation. In particular, we show that singularities modeled on these cones determine the local structure not only of $M$, but of any nearby minimal surface. Our result also implies the Bernstein-type result of Simon-Solomon, which characterizes area-minimizing hypersurfaces in $R^{n+1}$ asymptotic to a quadratic cone as either the cone itself, or some leaf of the foliation.  This is joint work with Luca Spolaor.

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
26 October 2020
16:00
Grigorios Fournodavlos
Abstract

Unlike the classical Cauchy problem in general relativity, which has been well-understood since the pioneering work of Y. Choquet-Bruhat (1952), the initial boundary value problem for the Einstein equations still lacks a comprehensive treatment. In particular, there is no geometric description of the boundary data yet known, which makes the problem well-posed for general timelike boundaries. Various gauge-dependent results have been established. Timelike boundaries naturally arise in the study of massive bodies, numerics, AdS spacetimes. I will give an overview of the problem and then present recent joint work with Jacques Smulevici that treates the special case of a totally geodesic boundary.

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
12 October 2020
16:00
Jacob Bedrossian
Abstract

In the talk, we will discuss the connection between quantitative hypoelliptic PDE methods and the long-time dynamics of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In a recent joint work with Alex Blumenthal and Sam Punshon-Smith, we put forward a new method for obtaining quantitative lower bounds on the top Lyapunov exponent of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Our method combines (i) an (apparently new) identity connecting the top Lyapunov exponent to a degenerate Fisher information-like functional of the stationary density of the Markov process tracking tangent directions with (ii) a  quantitative version of Hörmander's hypoelliptic regularity theory in an L1 framework which estimates this (degenerate) Fisher information from below by a W^{s,1} Sobolev norm using the associated Kolmogorov equation for the stationary density. As an initial application, we prove the positivity of the top Lyapunov exponent for a class of weakly-dissipative, weakly forced SDE and we prove that this class includes the classical Lorenz 96 model in any dimension greater than 6, provided the additive stochastic driving is applied to any consecutive pair of modes. This is the first mathematically rigorous proof of chaos (in the sense of positive Lyapunov exponents) for Lorenz 96 and, more recently, for finite dimensional truncations of the shell models GOY and SABRA (stochastically driven or otherwise), despite the overwhelming numerical evidence. If time permits, I will also discuss joint work with Kyle Liss, in which we obtain sharp, quantitative estimates on the spectral gap of the Markov semigroups. In both of these works, obtaining various kinds of quantitative hypoelliptic regularity estimates that are uniform in certain parameters plays a pivotal role.  

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
8 June 2020
16:00
Jens Marklof
Abstract

In the first part of this lecture, I will discuss the proof of convergence of the Lorentz process, in the Boltzmann-Grad limit, to a random process governed by a generalised linear Boltzmann equation. This will hold for general scatterer configurations, including certain types of quasicrystals, and include the previously known cases of periodic and Poisson random scatterer configurations. The second part of the lecture will focus on quantum transport in the periodic Lorentz gas in a combined short-wavelength/Boltzmann-Grad limit, and I will report on some partial progress in this challenging problem. Based on joint work with Andreas Strombergsson (part I) and Jory Griffin (part II).

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
11 May 2020
16:00
Franco Rampazzo
Abstract

For a given vector field $h$ on a manifold $M$ and an initial point $x \in M$, let $t \mapsto \exp th(x)$ denote the solution to the Cauchy problem $y' = h(y)$, $y(0) = x$. Given two vector fields $f$, $g$, the flows $\exp(tf)$, $\exp(tg)$ in general are not commutative. That is, it may happen that, for some initial point $x$,

$$\exp(-tg) \circ \exp(-tf) \circ \exp(tg) \circ \exp(tf) (x) ≠ x,$$

for small times $t ≠ 0$.

         As is well-known, the Lie bracket $[f,g] := Dg \cdot f - Df \cdot g$ measures the local non-commutativity of the flows. Indeed, one has (on any coordinate chart)

$$\exp(-tg) \circ \exp(-tf) \circ \exp(tg) \circ \exp(tf) (x) - x = t^2 [f,g](x) + o(t^2)$$

         The non-commutativity of vector fields lies at the basis of many nonlinear issues, like propagation of maxima for solutions of degenerate elliptic PDEs, controllability sufficient conditions in Nonlinear Control Theory, and higher order necessary conditions for optimal controls. The fundamental results concerning commutativity (e.g. Rashevski-Chow's Theorem, also known as Hörmander's full rank condition, or Frobenius Theorem) assume that the vector fields are smooth enough for the involved iterated Lie brackets to be well defined and continuous: for instance, if the bracket $[f,[g,h]]$ is to be used, one posits $g,h \in C^2$ and $f \in C^{1..}$.

         We propose a notion of (set-valued) Lie bracket (see [1]-[3]), through which we are able to extend some of the mentioned fundamental results to families of vector fields whose iterated brackets are just measurable and defined almost everywhere.

 

References.

[1]  Rampazzo, F. and Sussmann, H., Set-valued differentials and a nonsmooth version of Chow’s Theorem (2001), Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Orlando, Florida, 2001 (IEEE Publications, New York), pp. 2613-2618.

[2] Rampazzo F.  and Sussmann, H.J., Commutators of flow maps of nonsmooth vector fields (2007), Journal of Differential Equations, 232, pp. 134-175.

[3] Feleqi, E. and Rampazzo, F., Iterated Lie brackets for nonsmooth vector fields (2017), Nonlinear Differential Equations and Applications NoDEA, 24-6.

 

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  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
9 March 2020
16:00
Murat Akman
Abstract


The classical Minkowski problem consists in finding a convex polyhedron from data consisting of normals to their faces and their surface areas. In the smooth case, the corresponding problem for convex bodies is to find the convex body given the Gauss curvature of its boundary, as a function of the unit normal. The proof consists of three parts: existence, uniqueness and regularity. 

 

In this talk, we study a Minkowski problem for certain measure, called p-capacitary surface area measure, associated to a compact convex set $E$ with nonempty interior and its $p-$harmonic capacitary function (solution to the p-Laplace equation in the complement of $E$).  If $\mu_p$ denotes this measure, then the Minkowski problem we consider in this setting is that; for a given finite Borel positive measure $\mu$ on $\mathbb{S}^{n-1}$, find necessary and sufficient conditions for which there exists a convex body $E$ with $\mu_p =\mu$. We will discuss the existence, uniqueness, and regularity of this problem which have deep connections with the Brunn-Minkowski inequality for p-capacity and Monge-Amp{\`e}re equation.

 

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
2 March 2020
16:00
Abstract

The parabolic Allen-Cahn equations is the gradient flow of phase transition energy and can be viewed as a diffused version of mean curvature flows of hypersurfaces. It has been known by the works of Ilmanen and Tonegawa that the energy densities of the Allen-Cahn flows converges to mean curvature flows in the sense of varifold and the limit varifold is integer rectifiable. It is not known in general whether the transition layers have higher regularity of convergence yet. In this talk, I will report on a joint work with Huy Nguyen that under the low entropy condition, the convergence of transition layers can be upgraded to C^{2,\alpha} sense. This is motivated by the work of Wang-Wei and Chodosh-Mantoulidis in elliptic case that under the condition of stability, one can upgrade the regularity of convergence.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
24 February 2020
16:00
Federica Dragoni
Abstract

I will present a $\Gamma$-convergence for degenerate integral functionals related to homogenisation problems  in the Heisenberg group. In our  case, both the rescaling and the notion of invariance or periodicity are chosen in a way motivated by the geometry of the Heisenberg group. Without using special geometric features, these functionals would be neither coercive nor periodic, so classic results do not apply.  All the results apply to the more general case of Carnot groups. Joint with Nicolas Dirr, Paola Mannucci and Claudio Marchi.

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar

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