We present a simple algorithm that successfully re-constructs a sine wave, sampled vastly below the Nyquist rate, but with sampling time intervals having small random perturbations. We show how the fact that it works is just common sense, but then go on to discuss how the procedure relates to Compressed Sensing. It is not exactly Compressed Sensing as traditionally stated because the sampling transformation is not linear. Some published results do exist that cover non-linear sampling transformations, but we would like a better understanding as to what extent the relevant CS properties (of reconstruction up to probability) are known in certain relatively simple but non-linear cases that could be relevant to industrial applications.

# Forthcoming Seminars

Please note that the list below only shows forthcoming events, which may not include regular events that have not yet been entered for the forthcoming term. Please see the past events page for a list of all seminar series that the department has on offer.

Sudden cardiac death is the most feared complication of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. This inherited heart muscle disease affects 1 in 500 people. But we are poor at identifying those who really need a potentially life-saving implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Measuring the abnormalities believed to trigger fatal ventricular arrhythmias could guide treatment. Myocardial disarray is the hallmark feature of patients who die suddenly but is currently a post mortem finding. Through recent advances, the microstructure of the myocardium can now be examined by mapping the preferential diffusion of water molecules along fibres using Diffusion Tensor Cardiac Magnetic Resonance imaging. Fractional anisotropy calculated from the diffusion tensor, quantifies the directionality of diffusion. Here, we show that fractional anisotropy demonstrates normal myocardial architecture and provides a novel imaging biomarker of the underlying substrate in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which relates to ventricular arrhythmia.

Elena Gal

Categorification, Quantum groups and TQFTs

Quantum groups are mathematical objects that encode (via their "category of representations”) certain symmetries which have been found in the last several dozens of years to be connected to several areas of mathematics and physics. One famous application uses representation theory of quantum groups to construct invariants of 3-dimensional manifolds. To extend this theory to higher dimensions we need to “categorify" quantum groups - in essence to find a richer structure of symmetries. I will explain how one can approach such problem.

Carolina Urzua-Torres

Why you should not do boundary element methods, so I can have all the fun.

Boundary integral equations offer an attractive alternative to solve a wide range of physical phenomena, like scattering problems in unbounded domains. In this talk I will give a simple introduction to boundary integral equations arising from PDEs, and their discretization via Galerkin BEM. I will discuss some nice mathematical features of BEM, together with their computational pros and cons. I will illustrate these points with some applications and recent research developments.

I will discuss recently published examples of SCFTs in

two dimensions and their dual backgrounds. Aspects of the

integrability of these string backgrounds will be described in

correspondence with those of the dual SCFTs. The comparison with four and

six dimensional examples will be presented. It time allows, the case of

conformal quantum mechanics will also be addressed.

An 8-dimensional Riemannian manifold with holonomy group contained in Spin(7) is Ricci-flat, but not Kahler. The condition that the holonomy reduces to Spin(7) is equivalent to a complicated system of non-linear PDEs. In the non-compact setting, symmetries can be used to reduce this complexity. In the case of cohomogeneity one manifolds, i.e. where a generic orbit has codimension one, the non-linear PDE system

reduces to a nonlinear ODE system. I will discuss recent progress in the construction of 1-parameter families of complete cohomogeneity one Spin(7) holonomy metrics. All examples are asymptotically conical (AC) or asymptotically locally conical (ALC).

Consider a collection of particles whose state evolution is described through a system of interacting diffusions in which each particle

is driven by an independent individual source of noise and also by a small amount of noise that is common to all particles. The interaction between the particles is due to the common noise and also through the drift and diffusion coefficients that depend on the state empirical measure. We study large deviation behavior of the empirical measure process which is governed by two types of scaling, one corresponding to mean field asymptotics and the other to the Freidlin-Wentzell small noise asymptotics.

Different levels of intensity of the small common noise lead to different types of large deviation behavior, and we provide a precise characterization of the various regimes. We also study large deviation behavior of interacting particle systems approximating various types of Feynman-Kac functionals. Proofs are based on stochastic control representations for exponential functionals of Brownian motions and on uniqueness results for weak solutions of stochastic differential equations associated with controlled nonlinear Markov processes.

We will first construct pairs of homotopic 2-spheres smoothly embedded in a 4-manifold that are smoothly equivalent (via an ambient diffeomorphism preserving homology) but not even topologically isotopic. Indeed, these examples show that Gabai's recent "4D Lightbulb Theorem" does not hold without the 2-torsion hypothesis. We will proceed to discuss two distinct ways of obstructing such an isotopy, as well as related invariants which can be used to obstruct an isotopy between pairs of properly embedded disks (rather than spheres) in a 4-manifold.

The deep neural network has achieved impressive results in various applications, and is involved in more and more branches of science. However, there are still few theories supporting its empirical success. In particular, we miss the mathematical tool to explain the advantage of certain structures of the network, and to have quantitive error bounds. In our recent work, we used a regularised relaxed control problem to model the deep neural network. We managed to characterise its optimal control by the invariant measure of a mean-field Langevin system, which can be approximated by the marginal laws. Through this study we understand the importance of the pooling for the deep nets, and are capable of computing an exponential convergence rate for the (stochastic) gradient descent algorithm.