Past Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar

15 November 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Abstract

Boundary layers control the transport of momentum, heat, solutes and other quantities between walls and the bulk of a flow. The Prandtl-Blasius boundary layer was the first quantitative example of a flow profile near a wall and could be derived by an asymptotic expansion of the Navier-Stokes equation. For higher flow speeds we have scaling arguments and models, but no derivation from the Navier-Stokes equation. The analysis of exact coherent structures in plane Couette flow reveals ingredients of such a more rigorous description of boundary layers. I will describe how exact coherent structures can be scaled to obtain self-similar structures on ever smaller scales as the Reynolds number increases.

A quasilinear approximation allows to combine the structures self-consistently to form boundary layers. Going beyond the quasilinear approximation will then open up new approaches for controlling and manipulating boundary layers.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
8 November 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Marta Lewicka & Shankar Venkataramani
Abstract

(Marta Lewicka)

Variational methods have been extensively used in the past decades to rigorously derive nonlinear models in the description of thin elastic films. In this context, natural growth or differential swelling-shrinking lead to models where an elastic body aims at reaching a space-dependent metric. We will describe the effect of such, generically incompatible, prestrain metrics on the singular limits' bidimensional models. We will discuss metrics that vary across the specimen in both the midplate and the thin (transversal) directions. We will also cover the case of the oscillatory prestrain, exhibit its relation to the non-oscillatory case via identifying the effective metrics, and discuss the role of the Riemann curvature tensor in the limiting models.

 

(Shankar Venkataramani)

Using the bidimensional models for pre-strained Elasticity, that Marta will discuss in her talk, I will discuss some contrasts between the mechanics of thin objects with non-negative curvature (plates, spherical shells, etc) and the mechanics of hyperbolic sheets, i.e. soft/thin objects with negative curvature. I will motivate the need for new "geometric" methods for discretizing the relevant equations, and present some of our preliminary work in this direction.

This is joint work with Toby Shearman and Ken Yamamoto.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
1 November 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Abstract

J. M. Foster 1 , N. E. Courtier 2 , S. E. J. O’Kane 3 , J. M. Cave 3 , R. Niemann 4 , N. Phung 5 , A. Abate 5 , P. J. Cameron 4 , A. B. Walker 3 & G. Richardson 2 .

 

1 School of Mathematics & Physics, University of Portsmouth, UK. {jamie.michael.foster@gmail.com}

2 School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, UK.

3 School of Physics, University of Bath, UK.

4 School of Chemistry, University of Bath, UK.

5 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Germany.

 

Metal halide perovskite has emerged as a highly promising photovoltaic material. Perovskite-based solar cells now exhibit power conversion efficiencies exceeding 22%; higher than that of market-leading multi-crystalline silicon, and comparable to the Shockley-Queisser limit of around 33% (the maximum obtainable efficiency for a single junction solar cell). In addition to fast electronic phenomena, occurring on timescales of nanoseconds, they also exhibit much slower dynamics on the timescales of several seconds and up to a day. One well-documented example of this is the ‘anomalous’ hysteresis observed in current-voltage scans where the applied voltage is varied whilst the output current is measured. There is now a consensus that this is caused by the motion of ions in the perovskite material affecting the internal electric field and in turn the electronic transport.

We will discuss the formulation of a drift-diffusion model for the coupled electronic and ionic transport in a perovskite solar cell as well as its systematic simplification via the method of matched asymptotic expansions. We will use the resulting reduced model to give a cogent explanation for some experimental observations including, (i) the apparent disappearance of current-voltage hysteresis for certain device architectures, and (ii) the slow fading of performance under illumination during the day and subsequent recovery in the dark overnight. Finally, we suggest ways in which materials and geometry can be chosen to reduce charge carrier recombination and improve device performance.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
25 October 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Jens Eggers
Abstract

Caustics are places where the light intensity diverges, and where the wave front has a singularity. We use a self-similar description to derive the detailed spatial structure of a cusp singularity, from where caustic lines originate. We also study singularities of higher order, which have their own, uniquely three-dimensional structure. We use this insight to study shock formation in classical compressible Euler dynamics. The spatial structure of these shocks is that of a caustic, and is described by the same similarity equation.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
18 October 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Abstract

Many types of patterns emerging spontaneously can be observed in systems involving thin elastic plates and subjected to external or internal stresses (compression, differential growth, shearing, tearing, etc.). These mechanical systems can sometime be seen as model systems for more complex natural systems and allow to study in detail elementary emerging patterns. One of the simplest among such systems is a bilayer composed of a thin plate resting on a thick deformable substrate. Upon slight compression, periodic undulations (wrinkles) with a well-defined wavelength emerge at the level of the thin layer. We will show that, as the compression increases, this periodic state is unstable and that a second order transition to a localized state (fold) occurs when the substrate is a dense fluid.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
11 October 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Madhavi Krishnan
Abstract

The desire to “freely suspend the constituents of matter” in order to study their behavior can be traced back over 200 years to the diaries of Lichtenberg. From radio-frequency ion traps to optical tweezing of colloidal particles, existing methods to trap matter in free space or solution rely on the use of external fields that often strongly perturb the integrity of a macromolecule in solution. We recently introduced the ‘electrostatic fluidic trap’, an approach that exploits equilibrium thermodynamics to realise stable, non-destructive confinement of single macromolecules in room temperature fluids, and represents a paradigm shift in a nearly century-old field. The spatio-temporal dynamics of a single electrostatically trapped object reveals fundamental information on its properties, e.g., size and electrical charge. We have demonstrated the ability to measure the electrical charge of a single macromolecule in solution with a precision much better than a single elementary charge. Since the electrical charge of a macromolecule in solution is in turn a strong function of its 3D conformation, our approach enables for the first time precise, general measurements of the relationship between 3D structure and electrical charge of a single macromolecule, in real time. I will present our most recent advances in this emerging area of molecular measurement and show how such high-precision measurement at the nanoscale may be able to unveil the presence of previously unexpected phenomena in intermolecular interactions in solution.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
14 June 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Antonio Desimone
Abstract

Locomotion strategies employed by unicellular organism are a rich source of inspiration for studying mechanisms for shape control. They are particularly interesting because they are invisible to the naked eye, and offer surprising new solutions to the question of how shape can be controlled.

In recent years, we have studied locomotion and shape control in Euglena gracilis. This unicellular protist is particularly intriguing because it can adopt different motility strategies: swimming by flagellar propulsion, or crawling thanks to large amplitude shape changes of the whole body (a behavior known as metaboly). We will survey our most recent findings within this stream of research.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
7 June 2018
16:00
to
17:30
David Fairhurst
Abstract

In laboratories around the world, scientists use magnetic stirrers to mix solutions and dissolve powders. It is well known that at high drive rates the stir bar jumps around erratically with poor mixing, leading to its nick-name 'flea'. Investigating this behaviour, we discovered a state in which the flea levitates stably above the base of the vessel, supported by magnetic repulsion between flea and drive magnet. The vertical motion is oscillatory and the angular motion a superposition of rotation and oscillation. By solving the coupled vertical and angular equations of motion, we characterised the flea’s behaviour in terms of two dimensionless quantities: (i) the normalized drive speed and (ii) the ratio of magnetic to viscous forces. However, Earnshaw’s theorem states that levitation via any arrangement of static magnets is only possible with additional stabilising forces. In our system, we find that these forces arise from the flea’s oscillations which pump fluid radially outwards, and are only present for a narrow range of Reynold's numbers. At slower, creeping flow speeds, only viscous forces are present, whereas at higher speeds, the flow reverses direction and the flea is no longer stable. We also use both the levitating and non-levitating states to measure rheological properties of the system.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
31 May 2018
16:00
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17:30
Herbert Huppert
Abstract

There are a huge number of nonlinear partial differential equations that do not have analytic solutions.   Often one can find similarity solutions, which reduce the number of independent variables, but still leads, generally, to a nonlinear equation.  This can, only sometimes, be solved analytically.  But always the solution is independent of the initial conditions.   What role do they play?   It is generally stated that the similarity  solution agrees with the (not determined) exact solution when (for some variable say t) obeys t >> t_1.   But what is  t_1?   How does it depend on the initial conditions?  How large must  t be for the similarity solution to be within 15, 10, 5, 1, 0.1, ….. percent of the real solution?   And how does this depend on the parameters and initial conditions of the problem?   I will explain how two such typical, but somewhat different, fundamental problems can be solved, both analytically and numerically,  and compare some of the results with small scale laboratory experiments, performed during the talk.  It will be suggested that many members of the audience could take away the ideas and apply them in their own special areas.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
24 May 2018
16:00
to
17:30
Frederic Dias
Abstract

Statements in media about record wave heights being measured are more and more common, the latest being about a record wave of almost 24m in the Southern Ocean on 9 May 2018. We will review some of these wave measurements and the various techniques to measure waves. Then we will explain the various mechanisms that can produce extreme waves both in wave tanks and in the ocean. We will conclude by providing the mechanism that, we believe, explains some of the famous extreme waves. Note that extreme waves are not necessarily rogue waves and that rogue waves are not necessarily extreme waves.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar

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