Forthcoming Seminars

Please note that the list below only shows forthcoming events, which may not include regular events that have not yet been entered for the forthcoming term. Please see the past events page for a list of all seminar series that the department has on offer.

Past events in this series
31 May 2019
12:00
Desmond Higham
Abstract

Dimension reduction is an overarching theme in data science: we enjoy finding informative patterns, features or substructures in large, complex data sets. Within the field of network science, an important problem of this nature is to identify core-periphery structure. Given a network, our task is to assign each node to either the core or periphery. Core nodes should be strongly connected across the whole network whereas peripheral nodes should be strongly connected only to core nodes. More generally, we may wish to assign a non-negative value to each node, with a larger value indicating greater "coreness." This type of problem is related to, but distinct from, commumnity detection (finding clusters) and centrality assignment (finding key players), and it arises naturally in the study of networks in social science and finance. We derive and analyse a new iterative algorithm for detecting network core-periphery structure.

Using techniques in nonlinear Perron-Frobenius theory we prove global convergence to the unique solution of a relaxed version of a natural discrete optimization problem. On sparse networks, the cost of each iteration scales linearly with the number of nodes, making the algorithm feasible for large-scale problems. We give an alternative interpretation of the algorithm from the perspective of maximum likelihood reordering of a new logistic core--periphery random graph model. This viewpoint also gives a new basis for quantitatively judging a core--periphery detection algorithm. We illustrate the algorithm on a range of synthetic and real networks, and show that it offers advantages over the current state-of-the-art.

This is joint work with Francesco Tudisco (Strathclyde)

  • Data Science Seminar
31 May 2019
14:00
Abstract

Cardiac fibrosis plays a significant role in the disruption of healthy electrical signalling in the heart, creating structural heterogeneities that induce and stabilise arrhythmia.  However, a proper understanding of the consequences of cardiac fibrosis must take into account the complex and highly variable patterns of its spatial localisation in the heart, which significantly affects the extent and manner of its impacts on cardiac wave propagation. In this work we present a methodology for the algorithmic generation of fibrotic patterns via Perlin noise, a technique for computationally efficient generation of textures in computer graphics.

Our approach works directly from image data to create populations of pattern realisations that all resemble the target image under a set of metrics. Our technique thus serves as a type of data enrichment, enabling analysis of how variability in the precise placement of fibrotic structures modulates their electrophysiological impact. We demonstrate our method, and the types of analysis it can enable, using a widely referenced histological image of four different types of microfibrotic structure. Our generator and Bayesian tuning method prove flexible enough to successfully capture each of these very distinct patterns.

We demonstrate the importance of this tool, by presenting 2D simulations overlayed on the generated images that highlight the effects of microscopic variability on the electrophysiological impact of fibrosis. Finally, we discuss the application of our methodology to the increasingly available imaging data of fibrotic patterning on a more macroscopic scale, and indeed to other areas of science underpinned by image based modelling and simulation.    

  • Mathematical Biology and Ecology Seminar
3 June 2019
14:15
Abstract

 

Neural networks are undoubtedly successful in practical applications. However complete mathematical theory of why and when machine learning algorithms based on neural networks work has been elusive. Although various representation theorems ensures the existence of the ``perfect’’ parameters of the network, it has not been proved that these perfect parameters can be (efficiently) approximated by conventional algorithms, such as the stochastic gradient descent. This problem is well known, since the arising optimisation problem is non-convex. In this talk we show how the optimization problem becomes convex in the mean field limit for one-hidden layer networks and certain deep neural networks. Moreover we present optimality criteria for the distribution of the network parameters and show that the nonlinear Langevin dynamics converges to this optimal distribution. This is joint work with Kaitong Hu, Zhenjie Ren and Lukasz Szpruch. 

 

  • Stochastic Analysis Seminar
3 June 2019
14:15
Lukas Brantner
Abstract

Partition Lie algebras are generalisations of rational differential graded Lie algebras which, by a recent result of Mathew and myself, govern the formal deformation theory of algebro-geometric objects in finite and mixed characteristic. In this talk, we will take a closer look at these new gadgets and discuss some of their applications in algebra and topology

  • Geometry and Analysis Seminar
3 June 2019
15:45
Alexandre Martin
Abstract

A group is said to satisfy the Tits Alternative if its finitely generated subgroups exhibit a striking dichotomy: they are either "big" (they contain a non-abelian free subgroup) or "small" (they are virtually soluble). Many groups of geometric interest have been shown to satisfy the Tits Alternative: linear groups, mapping class groups of hyperbolic surfaces, etc. In this talk, I will explain how one can use ideas from group actions in negative curvature to prove such a dichotomy. In particular, I will show how one can prove a strengthening of the Tits Alternative for a large class of Artin groups. This is joint work with Piotr Przytycki.

3 June 2019
16:00
Abstract

In this talk, I will present our recent progress collaborated with Prof. Gui-Qiang G. Chen and Prof. Paolo Secchi on two kinds of characteristic discontinuities: relativistic vortex sheets in three-dimensional Minkowski spacetime and multi-dimensional thermoelastic contact discontinuities.
 

  • Partial Differential Equations Seminar
4 June 2019
12:00
Fernando Rosas

Further Information: 


Fernando Rosas received the B.A. degree in music composition and philosophy, the B.Sc. degree in mathematics, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in engineering sciences from the Pontifícia Universidad Católica de Chile. He is currently a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Research Fellow in the Department of Mathematics and the Department of Electronic Engineering at Imperial College London. Previously, he worked as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Department of Electrical Engineering of KU Leuven, and as Research Fellow at the Department of Electrical Engineering of National Taiwan University. His research interests lie in the interface between information theory, complexity science and computational neuroscience.
 

Abstract


Complexity Science aims to understand what is that makes some systems to be "more than the sum of their parts". A natural first step to address this issue is to study networks of pairwise interactions, which have been done with great success in many disciplines -- to the extend that many people today identify Complexity Science with network analysis. In contrast, multivariate complexity provides a vast and mostly unexplored territory. As a matter of fact, the "modes of interdependency" that can exist between three or more variables are often nontrivial, poorly understood and, yet, are paramount for our understanding of complex systems in general, and emergence in particular. 
In this talk we present an information-theoretic framework to analyse high-order correlations, i.e. statistical dependencies that exist between groups of variables that cannot be reduced to pairwise interactions. Following the spirit of information theory, our approach is data-driven and model-agnostic, being applicable to discrete, continuous, and categorical data. We review the evolution of related ideas in the context of theoretical neuroscience, and discuss the most prominent extensions of information-theoretic metrics to multivariate settings. Then, we introduce the O-information, a novel metric that quantify various structural (i.e. synchronous) high-order effects. Finally, we provide a critical discussion on the framework of Integrated Information Theory (IIT), which suggests an approach to extend the analysis to dynamical settings. To illustrate the presented methods, we show how the analysis of high-order correlations can reveal critical structures in various scenarios, including cellular automata, Baroque music scores, and various EEG datasets.


References:
[1] F. Rosas, P.A. Mediano, M. Gastpar and H.J. Jensen, ``Quantifying High-order Interdependencies via Multivariate Extensions of the Mutual Information'', submitted to PRE, under review.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1902.11239
[2] F. Rosas, P.A. Mediano, M. Ugarte and H.J. Jensen, ``An information-theoretic approach to self-organisation: Emergence of complex interdependencies in coupled dynamical systems'', in Entropy, vol. 20 no. 10: 793, pp.1-25, Sept. 2018.
https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/20/10/793

 

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