Past Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar

18 February 2021
12:00
Professor Ruth Baker

Further Information: 

We continue this term with our flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

Note the new time of 12:00-13:00 on Thursdays.

This will give an opportunity for the entire community to attend and for speakers with childcare responsibilities to present.

Abstract

Simple mathematical models have had remarkable successes in biology, framing how we understand a host of mechanisms and processes. However, with the advent of a host of new experimental technologies, the last ten years has seen an explosion in the amount and types of quantitative data now being generated. This sets a new challenge for the field – to develop, calibrate and analyse new, biologically realistic models to interpret these data. In this talk I will showcase how quantitative comparisons between models and data can help tease apart subtle details of biological mechanisms, as well as present some steps we have taken to tackle the mathematical challenges in developing models that are both identifiable and can be efficiently calibrated to quantitative data.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
11 February 2021
12:00
John Biggins

Further Information: 

We continue this term with our flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

Note the new time of 12:00-13:00 on Thursdays.

This will give an opportunity for the entire community to attend and for speakers with childcare responsibilities to present.

Abstract

This talk will be three short stories on the general theme of elastic
instabilities in soft solids. First I will discuss the inflation of a
cylindrical cavity through a bulk soft solid, and show that such a
channel ultimately becomes unstable to a finite wavelength peristaltic
undulation. Secondly, I will introduce the elastic Rayleigh Plateau
instability, and explain that it is simply 1-D phase separation, much
like the inflationary instability of a cylindrical party balloon. I will
then construct a universal near-critical analytic solution for such 1-D
elastic instabilities, that is strongly reminiscent of the
Ginzberg-Landau theory of magnetism. Thirdly, and finally, I will
discuss pattern formation in layer-substrate buckling under equi-biaxial
compression, and argue, on symmetry grounds, that such buckling will
inevitably produce patterns of hexagonal dents near threshold.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
4 February 2021
12:00
Rebecca Shipley

Further Information: 

We continue this term with our flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

Note the new time of 12:00-13:00 on Thursdays.

This will give an opportunity for the entire community to attend and for speakers with childcare responsibilities to present.

Abstract

In March 2020, as COVID-19 cases started to surge for the first time in the UK, a team spanning UCL engineers, University College London Hospital (UCLH) intensivists and Mercedes Formula 1 came together to design, manufacture and deploy non-invasive breathing aids for COVID-19 patients. We reverse engineered and an off-patent CPAP (continuous positive airways pressure) device, the Philips WhisperFlow, and changed its design to minimise its oxygen utilisation (given that hospital oxygen supplies are under extreme demand). The UCL-Ventura received regulatory approvals from the MHRA within 10 days, and Mercedes HPP manufactured 10,000 devices by mid-April. UCL-Ventura CPAPs are now in use in over 120 NHS hospitals.


In response to international need, the team released all blueprints open source to enable local manufacture in other countries, alongside a support package spanning technical, manufacturing, clinical and regulatory components. The designs have been downloaded 1900 times across 105 countries, and around 20 teams are now manufacturing at scale and deploying in local hospitals. We have also worked closely with NGOs, on a non-profit basis, to deliver devices directly to countries with urgent need, including Palestine, Uganda and South Africa.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
28 January 2021
12:00
Elisabeth Guazzelli

Further Information: 

We continue this term with our flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

Note the new time of 12:00-13:00 on Thursdays.

This will give an opportunity for the entire community to attend and for speakers with childcare responsibilities to present.

Abstract

Suspensions are composed of mixtures of particles and fluid and are
ubiquitous in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete,
drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in
natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). The
present talk focusses on the rheology of concentrated suspensions of
non-colloidal particles. It addresses the classical shear viscosity of
suspensions but also non-Newtonian behaviour such as normal-stress
differences and shear-induced migration. The rheology of dense
suspensions can be tackled via a diversity of approaches that are
introduced. In particular, the rheometry of suspensions can be
undertaken at an imposed volume fraction but also at imposed values of
particle normal stress, which is particularly well suited to yield
examination of the rheology close to the jamming transition. The
influences of particle roughness and shape are discussed.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
21 January 2021
12:00
to
13:30
Cameron Hall
Abstract

Contagion models on networks can be used to describe the spread of information, rumours, opinions, and (more topically) diseases through a population. In the simplest contagion models, each node represents an individual that can be in one of a number of states (e.g. Susceptible, Infected, or Recovered), and the states of the nodes evolve according to specified rules. Even with simple Markovian models of transmission and recovery, it can be difficult to compute the dynamics of contagion on large networks: running simulations can be slow, and the system of master equations is typically too large to be tractable.

 One approach to approximating contagion dynamics is to assume that each node state is independent of the neighbouring node states; this leads to a system of ODEs for the node state probabilities (the “first-order approximation”) that always overestimates the speed of infection spread. This approach can be made more sophisticated by introducing pair approximations or higher-order moment closures, but this dramatically increases the size of the system and slows computations. In this talk, I will present some alternative node-based approximations for contagion dynamics. The first of these is exact on trees but will always underestimate the speed of infection spread on a network with loops. I will show how this can be combined with the classic first-order node-based approximation to obtain a node-based approximation that has similar accuracy to the pair approximation, but which is considerably faster to solve.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
3 December 2020
16:00
to
17:30
Lakshminarayanan Mahadevan

Further Information: 

We return this term to our usual flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

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Abstract

Kirigami, the relatively unheralded cousin of origami, is the art of cutting paper to articulate and deploy it as a whole. By varying the number, size, orientation and coordination of the cuts, artists have used their imagination and intuition to create remarkable sculptures in 2 and 3 dimensions. I will describe some of our attempts to quantify the inverse problem that artists routinely solve, combining elementary mathematical ideas, with computations and physical models. 

 

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
26 November 2020
16:00
Daniel M. Anderson

Further Information: 

We return this term to our usual flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

Abstract

Daniel M. Anderson

Department of Mathematical Sciences, George Mason University

Applied and Computational Mathematics Division, NIST

Binary and multicomponent alloy solidification occurs in many industrial materials science applications as well as in geophysical systems such as sea ice. These processes involve heat and mass transfer coupled with phase transformation dynamics and can involve the formation of mixed phase regions known as mushy layers.  The understanding of transport mechanisms within mushy layers has important consequences for how these regions interact with the surrounding liquid and solid regions.  Through linear stability analyses and numerical calculations of mathematical models, convective instabilities that occur in solidifying ternary alloys will be explored.  Novel fluid dynamical phenomena that are predicted for these systems will be discussed.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
19 November 2020
16:00
Amy Kent, Michael Negus, Edwina Yeo and Helen Zha
Abstract

Amy Kent

Multiscale Mathematical Models for Tendon Tissue Engineering

 

Tendon tissue engineering aims to grow functional tendon in vitro. In bioreactor chambers, cells growing on a solid scaffold are fed with nutrient-rich media and stimulated by mechanical loads. The Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences is developing a Humanoid Robotic Bioreactor, where cells grow on a flexible fibrous scaffold actuated by a robotic shoulder. Tendon cells modulate their behaviour in response to shear stresses - experimentally, it is desirable to design robotic loading regimes that mimic physiological loads. The shear stresses are generated by flowing cell media; this flow induces deformation of the scaffold which in turn modulates the flow. Here, we capture this fluid-structure interaction using a homogenised model of fluid flow and scaffold deformation in a simplified bioreactor geometry. The homogenised model admits analytical solutions for a broad class of forces representing robotic loading. Given the solution to the microscale problem, we can determine microscale shear stresses at any point in the domain. In this presentation, we will outline the model derivation and discuss the experimental implications of model predictions.

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Michael Negus

High-Speed Droplet Impact Onto Deformable Substrates: Analysis And Simulations

 

The impact of a high-speed droplet onto a substrate is a highly non-linear, multiscale phenomenon and poses a formidable challenge to model. In addition, when the substrate is deformable, such as a spring-suspended plate or an elastic sheet, the fluid-structure interaction introduces an additional layer of complexity. We present two modeling approaches for droplet impact onto deformable substrates: matched asymptotics and direct numerical simulations. In the former, we use Wagner's theory of impact to derive analytical expressions which approximate the behaviour during the early stages of the impact. In the latter, we use the open source volume-of-fluid code Basilisk to conduct direct numerical simulations designed to both validate the analytical framework and provide insight into the later times of impact. Through both methods, we are able to observe how the properties of the substrate, such as elasticity, affect the behaviour of the flow. We conclude by showing how these methods are complementary, as a combination of both can lead to a thorough understanding of the droplet impact across timescales.

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Edwina Yeo

Modelling of Magnetically Targeted Stem Cell Delivery

 

Targeting delivery of stem cells to the site of an injury is a key challenge in regenerative medicine. One possible approach is to inject cells implanted withmagnetic nanoparticles into the blood stream. Cells can then be targeted to the delivery site by an external magnetic field. At the injury site, it is of criticalimportance that the cells do not form an aggregate which could significantly occlude the vessel.We develop a model for the transport of magnetically tagged cells in blood under the action of an external magnetic field. We consider a system of blood and stem cells in a single vessel.  We exploit the small aspect ratio of the vessel to examine the system asymptotically. We consider the system for a range of magnetic field strengths and varying strengths of the diffusion coefficient of the stem cells. We explore the different regimes of the model and determine the optimal conditions for the effective delivery of stem cells while minimising vessel occlusion.


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Helen Zha

Mathematical model of a valve-controlled, gravity driven bioreactor for platelet production

Hospitals sometimes experience shortages of donor blood platelet supplies, motivating research into~\textit{in vitro}~production of platelets. We model a novel platelet bioreactor described in Shepherd et al [1]. The bioreactor consists of an upper channel, a lower channel, and a cell-seeded porous collagen scaffold situated between the two. Flow is driven by gravity, and controlled by valves on the four inlets and outlets. The bioreactor is long relative to its width, a feature which we exploit to derive a lubrication reduction of unsteady Stokes flow coupled to Darcy. As the shear stress experienced by cells influences platelet production, we use our model to quantify the effect of varying pressure head and valve dynamics on shear stress.

 

[1] Shepherd, J.H., Howard, D., Waller, A.K., Foster, H.R., Mueller, A., Moreau, T., Evans, A.L., Arumugam, M., Chalon, G.B., Vriend, E. and Davidenko, N., 2018. Structurally graduated collagen scaffolds applied to the ex vivo generation of platelets from human pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocytes: enhancing production and purity. Biomaterials.

  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
12 November 2020
16:00
Helen Wilson

Further Information: 

[Meeting URL removed for security reasons]

Abstract

Materials made from a mixture of liquid and solid are, instinctively, very obviously complex. From dilatancy (the reason wet sand becomes dry when you step on it) to extreme shear-thinning (quicksand) or shear-thickening (cornflour oobleck) there is a wide range of behaviours to explain and predict. I'll discuss the seemingly simple case of solid spheres suspended in a Newtonian fluid matrix, which still has plenty of surprises up its sleeve.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar
5 November 2020
16:00
to
17:30
Corinna Maass

Further Information: 

We return this term to our usual flagship seminars given by notable scientists on topics that are relevant to Industrial and Applied Mathematics. 

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Abstract

Artificial microswimmers are an emerging field of research, attracting
interest as testing beds for physical theories of complex biological
entities, as inspiration for the design of smart materials, and for the
sheer elegance, and often quite counterintuitive phenomena of
experimental nonlinear dynamics.

Self-propelling droplets are among the most simplified swimmer models
imaginable, requiring just three components (oil, water, surfactant). In
this talk, I will show how these inherently stupid objects can make
surprisingly smart decisions based on interactions with microfluidic
structures and self-generated and external chemical fields.

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  • Industrial and Applied Mathematics Seminar

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