Statistical mechanics (or thermodynamics) is a way of understanding large systems of interacting objects, such as particles in fluids and gases, chemicals in solution, or people meandering through a crowded street. Large macroscopic systems require prohibitively large systems of equations, and so equilibrium thermodynamics gives us a way to average out all of these details and understand the typical behaviour of the large scale system.

Knots are isotopy classes of smooth embeddings of $S^1$ in to $S^3$. Intuitively a knot can be thought of as an elastic closed curve in space, that can be deformed without tearing. Oxford Mathematician Daniele Celoria explains.

"Knots are ubiquitous in the study of the topological and geometrical properties of manifolds with dimension $3$ and $4$. This is due to the fact that they can be used to prescribe the attachment instructions for the "building blocks" of these spaces, through a process known as surgery.

Homogenization theory aims to understand the properties of materials with complicated microstructures, such as those arising from flaws in a manufacturing process or from randomly deposited impurities. The goal is to identify an effective model that provides an accurate approximation of the original material. Oxford Mathematician Benjamin Fehrman discusses his research. 

"The practical considerations for identifying a simplified model are twofold:

The discomfort experienced when a kidney stone passes through the ureter is often compared to the pain of childbirth. Severe pain can indicate that the stone is too large to naturally dislodge, and surgical intervention may be required. A ureteroscope is inserted into the ureter (passing first through the urethra and the bladder) in a procedure called ureteroscopy. Via a miniscule light and a camera on the scope tip, the patient’s ureter and kidney are viewed by a urologist.

The Sun has been emitting light and illuminating the Earth for more than four billion years. By analyzing the properties of solar light we can infer a wealth of information about what happens on the Sun. A particularly fascinating (and often overlooked) property of light is its polarization state, which characterizes the orientation of the oscillation in a transverse wave. By measuring light polarization, we can gather precious information about the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic fields present therein.

The problem of optimisation – that is, finding the maximum or minimum of an ‘objective’ function – is one of the most important problems in computational mathematics. Optimisation problems are ubiquitous: traders might optimise their portfolio to maximise (expected) revenue, engineers may optimise the design of a product to maximise efficiency, data scientists minimise the prediction error of machine learning models, and scientists may want to estimate parameters using experimental data.

Diophantine approximation is about how well real numbers can be approximated by rationals. Say I give you a real number $\alpha$, and I ask you to approximate it by a rational number $a/q$, where $q$ is not too large. A naive strategy would be to first choose $q$ arbitrarily, and to then choose the nearest integer $a$ to $q \alpha$. This would give $| \alpha - a/q| \le 1/(2q)$, and $\pi \approx 3.14$.

If you type fundamental anagram of calculus into Google you will be led eventually to the string of symbols 6accdæ13eff7i3l9n4o4qrr4s8t12ux, probably accompanied by an explanation more or less as follows: this is a recipe for an anagram - take six copies of a, two of c, one of d, one of æ and so on, then rearrange these letters into a chunk of Latin.

Fusion energy may hold the key to a sustainable future of electricity production. However some technical stumbling blocks remain to be overcome. One central challenge of the fusion enterprise is how to effectively withstand the high heat load emanating from the core plasma. Even the sturdiest solid solutions suffer damage over time, which could be avoided by adding a thin liquid coating.

As you settle into your seat for a flight to a holiday destination or as part of yet another business trip, it is very easy to become absorbed by the glossy magazines or the novel you've been waiting forever to start reading. Understandably, the phrase "safety features on board this aircraft" triggers a rather unenthusiastic response. But you may be surprised by some of the incredible technology just a few feet away that is there to make sure everything goes smoothly.


Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s are devastating conditions with poorly understood mechanisms and no known cure. Yet a striking feature of these conditions is the characteristic pattern of invasion throughout the brain, leading to well-codified disease stages visible to neuropathology and associated with various cognitive deficits and pathologies.

Free suspended liquid films or sheets are often formed during industrial production of sprays as well as in natural processes such as sea spray. Early experimental and theoretical investigations of them were done by French physicist Felix Savart, who observed liquid sheets forming by a jet impact on a solid surface, or by two jets impacting each other (1833), and British physicist Arthur Mason Worthington, a pioneer in investigation of the crown splash forming after impact of a drop onto a liquid surface.

Over the last few years, the study of the physiological mechanisms governing the movement of fluids in the brain (referred to as the brain waterscape) has gained prominence. The reason? Anomalies in the brain fluid dynamics are related to diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, other forms of dementia and hydrocephalus. Understanding how the brain waterscape works can help discover how these diseases develop. Unfortunately, experimenting with the human brain in vivo is extremely difficult and the subject is still poorly understood.